CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
70 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の19件中1~19を表示しています
  • Bandaru V. Rao, Tanikella L. Narasimham, Muktinutalapati V. Subbarao
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 225-231
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The present investigation deals with the effects of 3 synthetic pyrethroid insecticides viz., Cypermethrin, Alphamethrin and Fenvalerate on the mitotic activity and mitotic chromosomes in the root meristems of Allium cepa. Root meristems were exposed to 4 different concentrations of each test compound for 1 h pulse treatment and allowed to different recovery periods.
    Cytological analyses revealed that the test compounds elicited varying degrees of cytotoxic, turbagenic (toxicity to spindle) and clastogenic effects. In the ultimate analysis, Cypermethrin and Alphamethrin have more turbagenic and weak clastogenic activity whereas Fenvalerate has relatively strong clastogenic activity in vitro.
  • Greicy H. R. Gambarini, Valter A. Della-Rosa, Ana Maria S. Machado de ...
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 233-237
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Fragile X syndrome has been recognized as the second most common cause of mental retardation after Down's syndrome, and has been diagnosed by cytogenetic and molecular analyses. Results from cytogenetic and molecular studies by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques in 34 patients suspected of fragile X syndrome (FRAXA) are compared. Results were similar: in five patients with karyotype 46,Yfra(X)(q27.3) the PCR technique also revealed mutation of FMR1 gene. In the other 29 patients who failed to express fragile X chromosome, PCR technique also showed the absence of mutation of FMR1 gene. Although PCR technique guaranteed fast FRAXA search, the cytogenetic study was as efficient as the PCR technique to diagnose fragile chromosome X syndrome in mentally retarded subjects.
  • Vladimir E. Gokhman
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 239-241
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Karyotypes of five species of parasitic wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, namely: Eurytoma flavimana Boheman (Eurytomidae; 2n=20), Perilampus rushkai Hellén (Perilampidae; 2n=6), Ormyrus gratiosus (Foerster) (Ormyridae; 2n=10), Megastigmus pictus (Foerster) (2n=10) and Megastigmus strobilobius Ratzeburg (Torymidae; n=5 and 2n=10) are studied for the first time, including first chromosome records for the family Perilampidae and subfamily Megastigminae (Torymidae). 2n=12 is confirmed in the previously studied Ormyrus sp. Phylogenetic and taxonomic implications of the new chromosomal data are discussed.
  • Carolina Müdespacher-Ziehl, Reyes Espiritu-Mora, Matías Ma ...
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 243-248
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    This study evaluated and compared the chromosomes of 2 populations of Peromyscus difficilis felipensis which has a broad but discontinuous distribution. One population occurs throughout the central highlands of Mexico, 2000 m above sea level, where the population range extends through the States of Mexico and Morelos; the second population is found in a locality called Cerro San Felipe, State of Oaxaca. The chromosomes were obtained from bone marrow cells, and their classification is described here. The diploid chromosome number (2n) found is 48 and the fundamental number (fn) is 76 for both populations. The principal differences reside in one pair of the morphology of biarmed chromosomes. The chromosomic formula for the population in the States of Mexico and Morelos is 1M+1SM+13ST+8T, and for the population in the southeast of Oaxaca is 2M+13ST+8T. In both populations, the X chromosome is subtelocentric and the Y chromosome is metacentric. Several comparisons with other subspecies are presented here, as well as the description of a karyotype of Peromyscus difficilis felipensis which is different from other reported subspecies.
  • Alongkod Tanomtong, Arunrat Chaveerach, Apiradee Sriphoom, Ruengwit Bu ...
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 249-255
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    As an endangered species in Thailand, wild animal species of the subfamily Paradoxurinae were selected for a cytogenetic study. The animal species sampled are Masked palm civet (Paguma lavata), Binturong (Arctictis binturong), Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) and Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivergata). Blood samples taken from Khao Khiew Zoo, Songkhla Zoo and Dusit Zoo were examined using lymphocyte culture techniques. The results indicate that the number of diploid chromosome of Masked palm civet, Binturong, Asian palm civet and Small-toothed palm civet are 44, 42, 42 and 40, respectively. The fundamental number (NF) are 62, 46, and 50 for both male and female Masked palm civet, Binturong, Asian palm civet, while that of Small-toothed palm civet is 56 for female and 55 for male. The type number of autosomes, metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric and telocentric chromosome are 6-10-10-16, 2-4-16-18, 2-4-20-14, and 6-8-10-14, respectively. Chromosome pairs 17, 19, and 20 are satellite chromosomes. The X and Y chromosomes are large submetacentric and small submetacentric for the Masked palm civet, whereas the Binturong and Asian palm civet have large metacentric and small submetacentric. The Small-toothed palm civet contains large metacentric and small acrocentric chromosome. In addition, conventional staining and G-banding techniques show that there are differences in number and location of G-banding for each species.
  • Masoud Sheidai, Zahra Noormohammadi
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 257-265
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is among important horticultural plants of Iran cultivated in several regions of the country. There is very limited cytogenetic information available for pomegranate in general. Meiotic studies were performed on 19 pomegranate cultivars of Iran considering chromosome pairing, chiasma frequency, the occurrence and effect of B-chromosomes and unreduced gamete formation. All the cultivars studied possessed 2n=2x=16 chromosome number forming mostly bivalents along with a low number of quadrivalents possibly due to the occurrence of translocations. They varied significantly in their meiotic characteristics due to their genomic differences. Some of the cultivars possessed B-chromosomes, which significantly changed their meiotic characteristics while some cultivars could produce unreduced gametes. With the use of present findings indicating genomic differences of the pomegranate cultivars studied a better hybridization and breeding program may be planned.
  • Gudde Sitarama Rao Mohan, Annadana Seetharam
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 267-273
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to study the genetic relationships between cultivated sunflower and selected wild sunflower species. Of the 40 random primers screened, 21 primers resulted in good amplification. The data structure included a total of 140 marker levels for 18 genotypes involving accessions of cultivated sunflower, wild sunflower species of different ploidy levels and a few interspecific hybrids. Squared Euclidean distance between individual genotypes was calculated and the genotypes were clustered following Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetical Averages (UPGMA). The dendrogram showed 3 distinct clusters namely cultivated genotypes, interspecific hybrids and their parents, and perennial diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid sunflowers. The pattern of clustering was in line with the current taxonomy of sunflowers. Further, it was observed that increase in genetic distance between the cultivated and wild sunflowers seems to reflect an associated decrease in crossability between them. However, further studies are required in this direction.
  • Mahmoud Mohamed Mansour, Ehab Abdel-Razik Kamel
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 275-282
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The influence of gibberellic acid, two heavy metals (cadmium and lead) and their interactions on mitotic activity and biochemical constituents of Vicia faba yielded seeds was studied. The results showed that different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) induced marked inhibition in the contents of soluble carbohydrate, proteins and ribonucleic acid. Heavy metals also induced marked increases of the total percentage of abnormalities. Moreover, different types of chromosomal aberrations were observed in response to heavy metals. On the contrary, gibberellic acid (GA3) stimulated mitotic activity and biochemical constituents of the yielded seeds of Vicia faba. Gibberellic acid could be also counteracted the adverse effects of heavy metals on mitotic index and some metabolic mechanisms of broad bean plants. In addition, electrophoretic profiles of broad bean seeds proteins showed quantitative differences between major bands obtained in control and treated plants.
  • Fábio Porto-Foresti, Claudio Oliveira, Fausto Foresti
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 283-286
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Cytogenetics studies in 12 specimens of Gymnothorax ocellatus reveled a diploid chromosome number of 2n=42 (16 metacentrics, 18 submetacentrics and 8 acrocentrics). The nucleolar organizer regions were located in a terminal position on the long arm of the chromosome pair number fifteen. Conspicuous blocks of constitutive heterochromatin were observed in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs. The results obtained are similar to those previously described for others species of this family. However, the cytogenetic informations may be useful in the identification of a possible variety of this species in Brazilian coast and contribute to the understanding of relationships among the species and the process of diversification which occurred in this group.
  • Daisuke Shiiba, Isamu Miyakawa, Nobundo Sando
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 287-293
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    When cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown to the stationary phase under anaerobic conditions and having distinctive giant mitochondrial nucleoids (mt-nucleoids), were transferred to aerobic conditions, dynamic changes in the mt-nucleoid morphology were revealed by DAPI-fluorescence microscopy. Within 1 h after transfer, the giant mt-nucleoids rapidly elongated into stringlike forms. Within 3 h after transfer, the mt-nucleoids dispersed as small particles in the cytoplasm. Within 6 h after transfer, the mt-nucleoids appeared as numerous smaller particles, just as aerobically grown cells did. The appearance of cells that had recovered respiration activity well corresponded to that of cells harboring large numbers of small mt-nucleoids. Mt-nucleoids were isolated from cells at 4 h and 7 h after transfer to aerobic culture. Chromatography on native DNA-cellulose of the DNA-binding proteins from the mt-nucleoids showed that 67-kDa and 52-kDa proteins were hardly detected in giant mt-nucleoids in anaerobically grown cells, but both proteins gradually appeared in the small mt-nucleoids during the transfer to aerobic conditions.
  • Karima Gh. M. Mahmoud, T. H. Scholkamy, A. Farghaly, M. F. Nawito
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 295-301
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The present study was conducted to analyse the chromosomes of blood culture and oocyte chromatin quality at the time of recovery in dromedary camels in relation to age. Twelve young (about one year) and twelve adult (4–10 years old) female camels were used. These animals with unknown reproductive history were slaughtered in Kerdasa abattoir (Giza province, Egypt). Blood samples were collected via sterile syringes from camels before slaughtering for chromosomal analysis. Oocytes from ovaries of both ages were aspirated from small antral follicles 1 to 5 mm in diameter and classified according to their quality into four categories. Nuclear status of cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were evaluated directly after collection. The results indicated that, the frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE'S) were increased significantly (p<0.05) with age. An increase in structural aberrations could be observed. There were no significant differences between young and adult camels in total number and quality of oocytes. Statistically significant (p<0.01) differences were between percentages of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and Germinal vesicle (GV) in young and adult camels. It is concluded that, the increase of age may have significant effects on structural chromosomal aberrations, SCE'S and meiotic stages of immature camel oocytes but not on the number and quality of oocytes.
  • Fernando Doro Zanoni, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Jairo Kenupp Ba ...
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 303-308
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The clastogenic effect of the Austroplenckia populnea bark wood extract was tested in vivo on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats by evaluating the induction of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei induction on polychromatic erythrocytes. The extract was administered by gavage at doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg body weight. Experimental and control animals were submitted to euthanasia 24 h after the treatment. A. populnea bark wood extract induced a dose related significant increase in the mean of chromosomal aberrations for the two higher doses and also a dose related significant increase in the mean of the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes to the three tested doses. Our findings suggest that A. populnea bark wood extract is clastogenic in the bone marrow cells of Wistar rats.
  • Animesh K. Datta, Moumita Mukherjee, Mohsina Iqbal
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 309-313
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Persistent occurrence of cytomixis was recorded during microsporogenesis in control and mutagen treated M1 plants/progenies of Ocimum basilicum L. (2n=72; family: Lamiaceae) and Withania somnifera (L.) Dun. (2n=48; family: Solanaceae). The phenomenon was observed in prophase I and metaphase I cells. Nature of cytomixis has been observed to be similar in both plant species and in all plant types of the species. Cytomixis was exhibited only in few groups of cells in a microsporophyll (4 to 8 clusters) and those cells in clusters (number of cells in clusters: 2 to 8 in O. basilicum and 2 to 4 in W. somnifera) were either anucleated or with deficient and with extra chromosomes than normal; while, most of the cells in microsporangium were not involved in cytomixis. Results obtained have been discussed.
  • Ayman A. Farghaly, Kawser M. El Sherbeny
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 315-321
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Theophylline (TH) is a methylxanthine widely used in clinical practice. The genotoxic effects of TH was investigated in mouse spleen, and spermatogonia cells. Also damage of DNA and molecular detection of apoptosis were applied. TH was administered orally as single dose of 25, 50, 75 and 120 mg kg−1 b.wt. and a multiple treatment with a daily dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg kg−1 b.wt. for 3 and 7 successive days. TH induced a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells which was dose and time dependent.
    Also, TH induced DNA damage and apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner in mouse liver cells. However, induced DNA damage and apoptosis was maximally detected at a concentration of 120 mg TH kg−1 b.wt. after oral treatment for 1 d.
  • Hideyuki Matoba,, Akiko Soejima, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Katsuhiko Kondo
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 323-330
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Detailed karyotypes of diploid Aster ageratoides var. ageratoides (2n=18), diploid A. iinumae (=Kalimeris pinnatifida) (2n=18) and tetraploid A. microcephalus var. ovatus (2n=36) were constructed on the basis of chromosome lengths, arm ratios and multi color fluorescence in situ hybridization (McFISH) with 5S and 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences as probes. The karyotype of A. iinumae was morphologically similar to those of A. ageratoides var. ageratoides, however, the size of the chromosomes of A. iinumae was apparently smaller (S-type chromosomes) compared to those of A. ageratoides (L-type chromosomes). The chromosomes of A. microcephalus var. ovatus, a putative amphidiploid between them consisted of the 18 large chromosomes (L-type chromosomes) and the 18 smaller chromosomes (S-type chromosomes). The McFISH with 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA of each A. ageratoides and A. iinumae chromosomes tagged 4 out of 18 chromosomes. Whereas A. microcephalus var. ovatus have 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA sites equal to the sum of the numbers in the two diploids (A. ageratoides and A. iinumae), 4 on the L-type chromosomes and 4 on the S-type chromosomes. The locations of the rDNA sites in A. microcephslus var. ovatus are corresponding to those of A. ageratoides and A. iinumae.
  • Adriana R. Custodio, Andréa P. S. Peñaloza, José ...
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 331-335
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Arachis stenosperma is a wild relative of the groundnut, with a peculiar disjunct distribution in Central Brazil and along the Atlantic coast. Arachis species show one pair of satellited chromosomes (SAT) and some species have a distinct, smaller pair (A pair). The SAT chromosomes are classified according to 10 types. Previous literature information on A. stenosperma documents the presence of SAT type 3 only in the coastal populations, while type 5 was restricted to accessions from Central Brazil. This work sampled a broader area of geographic distribution, represented by an increased number of accessions, and provides further information on karyotypic characteristics. All 23 accessions analyzed present 2n=20. SAT type 5 was found in 10 accessions, irrespective to their area of occurrence. So, type 5 occurs also in the Atlantic coast. Type 3, so far exclusive to the Litoral, is not the most frequent type in the area. With the present data, the potential cytogenetic distinction between coastal and continental populations has vanished. The formula 18m+2sm clearly predominates, both in the Litoral and in Central Brazilian populations. Also irrespective to the area of origin, both idiogram positions A9/SAT10 and SAT9/A10 were identified. As the SAT of type 3 is considered more primitive than type 5, and the coastal area of distribution of A. stenosperma is secondary, it's future detection in continental populations is expected. In the meantime, a unique cytogenetic feature, the presence of SAT type 3 persists as an exclusive attribute of the populations of the secondary area of occurrence.
  • Kohzaburo Fujikawa-Yamamoto, Minoru Miyagoshi, Hiroko Yamagishi
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 337-344
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The DNA content of polyploid cells sometimes decreases during subculturing. The mechanism of DNA reduction is not yet known. Precise measurements of DNA decay and related alterations in polyploid cells will be required to understand the mechanism. Diploid, tetraploid and octaploid Meth-A cells were continuously cultured for 244 d and the cellular DNA content was measured from the DNA histograms. The DNA content decays gradually with day t as expressed by f(t)=Ip exp{−G(t)}, where Ip is the initial ploidy, G(t)=at/{exp(−bt)+ct}, and a, b and c are the following parameters: a=0.026, b=0.01 and c=0.0175 (for tetraploid cells) or c=0.01 (for octaploid cells). The DNA content of diploid Meth-A cells was constant within the experimental errors. The DNA loss of polyploid cells was confirmed by a decrease in chromosome number. The cellular morphology changed in diploid and octaploid Meth-A cells, but not in tetraploid cells, suggesting that DNA loss and morphology alteration are independent. The doubling time shortened with culture time in the tetraploid and octaploid cells. The findings suggested that chromosomes are not independent in polyploid cells.
  • Eiji Kashiwagi, Akinori Takai, Yoshio Ojima
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 345-349
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    We studied chromosomal distribution of C-banded constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in four Dascyllus species with inter- and intraspecific Robertsonian polymorphism. In these results, only D. melanurus with an ancestral karyotypic feature consisting of 48 acrocentric chromosomes had characteristic C-bands in terminal regions of the long arms of NOR-bearing chromosomes and in subterminal regions of the long arms of the smallest chromosomes. The present results revealed that the karyotype of D. melanurus was ancestral-like in conventional staining but most differentiated in constitutive heterochromatin distribution. The statistical analysis showed precisely that the NOR-bearing chromosomes varied among the species but not within the species irrespective of intraspecific Robertsonian polymorphism. The present results obtained from a combination of the banded analyses and the statistical one provided useful information enabling a detailed understanding of chromosome evolution and related problems.
  • Fumi Yagisawa Yagisawa, Keiji Nishida, Haruko Kuroiwa, Toshiyuki Nagat ...
    2005 年 70 巻 3 号 p. 351-354
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/03/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Cyanidioschyzon merolae is considered to be a suitable model system for cytologial studies of organelle proliferation and partitioning because these unicellular cells contain each organelle singly. However, lysosomes of C. merolae have yet to be identified. Polyphosphate have been known to be accumulated in the vacuoles of many microorganisms including alga. The cells stained with Neisser staining method, which visualizes polyphosphate bodies, showed the lysosome-like structures. They were about 500 nm in diameter and usually found as four copies in a single cell. The structures changed their localization dynamically during the cell cycle. During interphase, they were observed in the cytosol. At the beginning of mitosis, they moved over the mitochondria. During cytokinesis, they were inherited to the daughter cells almost evenly, suggesting the existence of mechanisms for the ordered partitioning.
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