We investigated whether direct cell–cell contact between mast cells (MCs) and pulmonary fibroblasts (PFs) was important for PF proliferation, differentiation, and function, which are critically involved in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. MCs and PFs were isolated from male Wistar rats for 3 experimental conditions: (1) PFs alone (Controls); (2) co-culture and contact (CC) between MCs and PFs; and (3) co-culture and no contact (NC) between MCs and PFs. We monitored PF proliferation using growth curves and MTT assays, evaluated PF expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) by immunocytochemistry, and determined the concentrations of bFGF, TGF-β1, and Type I collagen in culture supernatants by ELISA. After 5 days in culture, CC conditions induced a significant increase in PF proliferation compared to the other 2 conditions. No significant difference was observed between the NC and control conditions. CC conditions also induced significantly higher PF expressions of α-SMA, and bFGF, TGF-β1, and Type I collagen production compared to the other 2 conditions. These results suggest that MCs promote both PF proliferation and their differentiation into myofibroblasts via direct cell–cell contact.
From among the population obtained from gamma irradiated seeds, a plant having segmental exchanges between heterologous chromosomes was isolated. Gamma ray-induced translocations have been reported in many plant species; however, there is no previous report of the occurrence of induced translocation in poppy. Chromosomal associations in rings and chains along with bivalents and univalents were observed in pollen mother cells (PMCs) during microsporogenesis. In a number of PMCs, only a few bivalents and a high frequency of univalents have also been observed. Various anaphasic anomalies were also taken into account including chromatid bridges, laggards and unequal separations etc. Later stages of meiosis were also found to be highly disturbed. Owing to the high frequency of chromosomal aberrations, the pollen fertility was considerably reduced. Phenotypically, the plant was shorter in height and weaker in comparison to the control population. The study furthermore deals with a brief investigation on the genetic behaviour of this peculiar anomaly and the probable cause of its occurrence.
Transmission electron microscopic study has been conducted on the epithelium of an unaltered intestinal tract of the snow trout, Schizothorax curvifrons. The ultrastructural analysis reveals that the epithelium comprises of enterocytes, goblet cells and rodlet cells. The enterocytes with basal nuclei were joined at their apical surfaces by desmosomes and microvilli forming a brush border were found on their apical plasma membrane, with a steady decrease in the length and density of the microvilli from the intestinal bulb towards the rectum. Spherical blebs were observed on the dense tips of the microvilli of the intestinal enterocytes. Distinct invaginations of the plasmalemma were found below the terminal net which is formed by the deep projection of the microfibrils of the microvilli in the apical cytosol. Endoplasmic reticulum, low density lipid droplets, heteromorphic mitochondria, and lysosomes were found scattered in the supranuclear cytosol of the enterocytes. The mucous secreting goblet cells interspersed between the enterocytes were occupied by tightly packed mucous globules of varying electrodensity. The rodlet cells were encountered only in the intestinal epithelium. The possible roles of the enterocytes and associated structures, goblet cells and rodlet cells have been discussed in this paper.
We report the first chromosome analysis for the saddleback anemonefish (Amphiprion polymnus) from Thailand. Kidney cell samples were taken from 5 male and 5 female fish. The mitotic chromosome preparation was prepared by directly from kidney cells. Conventional and Ag-NOR staining techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of A. polymnus was 2n=48 and the fundamental numbers (NF) was 96 in both male and female. The types of chromosomes were 6 large submetacentric, 2 large acrocentric, 10 medium metacentric, 12 medium submetacentric, 6 medium acrocentric, 10 small metacentric, and 2 small submetacentric chromosomes. The region adjacent to the telomeres on the short arms of chromosome pair 21 showed clearly observable secondary constriction/NORs. The karyotype formula for A. polymnus could be deduced as: 2n (48)=Lsm6+La2+Mm10+Msm12+Ma6+Sm10+Ssm2
Karyotype analysis of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. (Family: Leguminosae; Sub-family: Faboideae; annual herb, potential uses—nutraceuticals, forage and food for humans) revealed 5 (2n=20; 4Am+2Bscsm+2Csm+2Dsm+10Em) morphologically distinct chromosome types. The karyotype showed a prevalence of chromosomes with median primary constrictions. Satellites were associated with the short arm of 2B-type chromosomes. Chromosome length in the complement varies from 1.26 to 2.41 μm. The karyotype was symmetric in nature (TF%=43.11). The meiocytes had 2n=20 chromosomes always with an average of 9.96II+0.08I per cell at diakinesis and metaphase I. Formation of 10 II was predominant (95.83%). All anaphase I cells were cytogenetically balanced (10/10). About 66.67% diakinesis and MI cells showed secondary association of chromosomes and the chromosomes assorted themselves into variable groups of 4 (4.69%), 5 (6.25%), 6 (23.44%), 7 (64.06%) and 8 (1.56%). Out of 24 different types of associations among the group classes, 2II(3)+1II(4)—46.88% (7 group class) was the most frequent. Secondary polyploidy has been attributed as the possible cause of secondary association of chromosomes and the basic chromosome number for the species is suggested to be x=7.
Reciprocal crosses between Brassica carinata (BBCC, 2n=34) and B. tournefortii (TT, 2n=20) were attempted in order to determine crossability between the species, carry out chromosomal associations among the B, C and T genomes, and to study morphology of the interspecific hybrids. A hybrid between these 2 species was obtained only when B. carinata was used as a female parent. Morphologically, the hybrid was intermediate between the progenitor species but its leaves resembled B. carinata. The F1 plant was tall but grew very slowly. The hybrid was almost male sterile, showing only 2.3% pollen stainability. Meiotic studies of trigenomic triploid hybrid (BCT, 2n=27) showed various chromosome configurations including quadrivalents (0–1), trivalents (0–2), bivalents (2–9) and univalents (5–23). Only 5 univalents were recorded to have occurred; otherwise trivalents and bivalents were observed in pollen mother cells of the BCT hybrid. A few chromosomal association could be expected through allosyndesis which suggests the possibility of transferring genes across the species through interspecific hybridization.
Standardized karyotype and idiogram of the two-spot glass catfish (Ompok bimaculatus) from Chi basin, Maha Sarakham Province, northeast Thailand, were studied. Kidney cell samples were taken from 5 male and 5 female fish. The mitotic chromosome preparations were prepared directly from kidney cells. Conventional and Ag-NOR staining techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of O. bimaculatus was 2n=50, the fundamental number (NF) was 90 in both males and females. The types of chromosomes were 10 large metacentric, 2 large submetacentric, 4 large acrocentric, 2 large telocentric, 4 medium metacentric, 18 medium submetacentric, 2 medium acrocentric, 2 medium telocentric, and 6 small telocentric chromosomes. The region adjacent to telomere of the short arm of submetacentric chromosome pair 4 showed clearly observable nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). The karyotype formula for O. bimaculatus could be deduced as: 2n (diploid) 50=Lm10+Lsm2+La4+Lt2+Mm4+Msm18+Ma2+Mt2+St6
Recently, we discovered the LOV-containing blue light (BL) receptor, aureochrome, in the stramenopile alga Vaucheria. Aureochrome has been isolated in other stramenopile algae, such as Fucus and Ochromonas. The functional role of aureochrome has still not been identified in Fucus and Ochromonas. What kind of response does aureochrome mediate? Here, we investigated various light responses, such as cell morphology, motility and behavior in Ochromonas danica, by measuring cell dimensions and observing swimming behavior under various light conditions. Although cell length was not changed by different wavelengths of light (BL, GL and RL), cell width decreased in BL and GL in comparison with RL; that is RL-cultured cells are more spherical relative to those cultured in BL or GL. Also, the swimming speed of O. danica is slower under RL than under BL or GL. There was also an accumulation response toward a small irradiated area, but this response was induced only by BL or GL, not RL. The possible involvement of photoreceptors absorbing BL and GL in these morphological and motility responses is discussed.
In this study, the effects of the fungicide Pomarsol Forte WP 80, the insecticide Arrivo 25 EC and the herbicide The End EC were examined for seed germination percentages, the phases of mitosis and chromosomal abnormalities in soybean (Glycine max L.). Median EC (effective concentration) values were calculated according to relative reduction in root length (T/C%) after treatment for 72 h. Germination percentages of primary soybean roots decreased with increasing pesticide concentrations. Cytological observations showed that the mitotic frequency in root meristematic cells was decreased and that abnormality frequency was also decreased in parallel to the increase in concentrations for all pesticides, except for the 9.6 M concentration of Arrivo 25 EC. The obtained results indicate that these 3 pesticides had the ability to cause a reduction in the seed germination percentage in the number of different phases of mitosis and in the leaf pigment content of soybean (G. max L.).
Five translocation heterozygotes were induced by using gamma rays in Pisum sativum. The induced translocations showed a ring or chain of 4 chromosomes and 5 bivalents in most of the PMCs at diakinesis/metaphase I. Translocation heterozygotes predominantly showed an adjacent type of orientation as compared to alternate orientations of the centromeres which is reflected in the pollen stainability and pollen fertility of the plants. The translocation heterozygotes established could be used for gene mapping and the production of trisomics They would have altered karyotypes useful for other experimental studies on Pisum sativum.
A karyological study has been carried out on 6 populations of Aconitum brachypodum across its distribution region. All populations of the Aconitum brachypodum studied are diploid (2n=2x=16) with various chromosome morphologies. Karyological studies have been also carried out on 4 closely related species: A. pseudostapfianum, A. vilmorinianum var. altifidum, A. pukeense, A. ludlowii, A. pendulum and A. brachypodum var. laxiflorum, it is fist time to conduct karyological studies on the first 4 species. All 7 species studied are thus diploid with the chromosome number of 2n=2x=16. Combining the available chromosome studies, the Aconitum has relatively consistent chromosome diversification with a basic number of 8, and most species contain diploid individuals, which suggested Aconitum is at the initial phase of polyploid diversification.
The common Red flower Lasia spinosa (L.) and its rare Green flower form were investigated cytogenetically and at the molecular level by RAPD analysis to elucidate the taxonomic rank of the Green flower form. 2n=26 and 2n=28 chromosomes were found in the common Red flower form and the rare Green flower form, respectively. Two sub-metacentric chromosomes were present in the Green flower form. On the other hand, no sub-metacentric chromosome was found in the Red flower form. Two stain specific satellites were found in only the Red flower form. No CMA-band was found in the Red flower form. In contrast, 3 prominent CMA-positive bands were found in the Green flower form. The 2 forms showed distinct RAPD markers with 5 primer combinations. The 2 forms possessed characteristic karyotype and RAPD features, therefore do not support the view that the Green flower specimen may be considered a morphological form of Lasia spinosa.
In the present study, we analyzed 20 specimens of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii (12 males and 8 females), collected from the Três Bocas Stream, a tributary of the Tibagi River/PR. All individuals analyzed presented 2n=52 and different karyotypic formulae resulting in 4 cytotypes: cytotype I, with 12m+16sm+10st+14a and FN=90; cytotype II, with 14m+18sm+10st+10a and FN=94; cytotype III, with 10m+24sm+6st+12a and FN=92; and cytotype IV with 10m+14sm+8st+20a and NF=84. Such structural karyotypic variations among Bryconamericus aff. iheringii specimens are probably due to the occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions. In some individuals, nucleolus organizer regions (AgNORs) were observed on the short arm of a single submetacentric chromosome pair. In other individuals of this same population, an interindividual variation from 2–5 NOR-bearing chromosomes with markings located on chromosomes of different types and size was detected, along with AgNOR size heteromorphism between the homologous chromosomes in a metacentric pair. Thence, this population of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii from the Três Bocas Stream seems to show the occurrence of both multiple and single NOR systems, and also the presence of different karyotypes (cytotypes), which might suggest the occurrence of 2 different species of Bryconamericus living in sympatry in that location. The data discussed here and those presented in the literature show the need for a taxonomic revision in this group of fish.
Eukaryotic cells contain at least 3 types of double membrane-bound organelles (cell nucleus, mitochondrion and chloroplast (plastid), and 4 types of single membrane-bound organelles (endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosome (vacuole) and peroxisome (microbody)). These membrane-bounded organelles cannot be formed de novo but are inherited by growth, division and separation during cell cycle. The double membrane-bounded organelle plays a role as a leading apparatus of the inheritance (division and separation) of the single membrane-bounded organelles. The cell-nucleus divides accompanied by ER and Golgi apparatus while the mitochondra divide accompanied by a peroxisome and lysosomes. Chloroplasts divide independently. In particular, although the peroxisome divides as an intimate partner of mitochondrial division, the peroxisome-dividing ring has not yet been observed at the division site by traditional electron microscopic fixation. So we examined the putative peroxisome-dividing ring in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae cells by use of chemical fixation and high pressure freeze fixation. We were able to identify an electron dense peroxisome-dividing ring at the division site by use of high pressure freeze fixation.