The evaluation for experimental performance was analyzed by statistical method through watching video on university teaching laboratory class, which was aimed for proposing a new method of safety training on the class. The analysis was conducted on an experiment of Friedel-Crafts reaction in university teaching laboratory class which was attended by third year undergraduate chemistry students. Firstly, randomly chosen seventeen students were filmed their experimental performance in the class. A person who was familiar with chemistry experiments gave grades to the students on fifty points in five levels. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) with Principle Factor Method for the evaluated grade produced three factors: "Predictive capabilities", "Technical capabilities", and "Observational capabilities" as potential criteria of good-or-bad judgment for experimental performance. Secondly, the 9 delimited procedures of the experimental textbook for the teaching laboratory class were graded by the same person. By performing correlation analysis between the noted three factors and the grades, it was indicated that the strength of influence of factors on operator's experimental skills could differs depends on each experimental procedure and that similar experimental procedures could correlate different factors. Specifying the strength of correlation between experimental performance at each procedure and basic experimental capabilities seems to indicate a possibility of developing a new methodology for safety training on teaching laboratory class such as a prediction method for detecting an experimental procedure which shows weak relationship between operator and operation.
The status of the acquisition and the conservation of the authentication of certification-type environmental management systems (EMSs) in Japanese colleges/universities up to June 2011 was investigated by the search in the site of the homepages of all Japanese colleges/universities (735 colleges/universities). As a result, 81 colleges/universities, campuses, faculties or departments in 62 colleges/universities were revealed to get the certification of ISO 14001. Nineteen colleges/universities or their parts, however, have broken off the conservation of the ISO 14001 certification, resulting in the tendency that the total number of the colleges/universities which or whose parts keep the ISO 14001 certification has been decreased from 2009. In the meanwhile, 8 colleges/universities have got the certification of EcoAction 21 and 3 colleges/universities have got the certification of local certification-type EMSs, all of which have conserved the certification at June 2011. The results of this study indicate that, for the purpose of the further propagation of certification-type EMSs over the Japanese colleges/universities, more close insight should be examined into the reasons why so many colleges/universities have broken off the certification of ISO 14001, and the other certificationtype EMSs such as EcoAction 21 and several local certification-type EMSs should become more universally known. Additionally, the development of the certification- type EMS specific for college/university and higher research institution will be worthwhile to be closely considered.
The aim of this study is to investigate water purification function by water conservation forest in Kanto Mountains, Japan. Total nitrogen (TN) concentrations, total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the rainwater and in the outflow river water were measured. The results revealed that the water purification by forests was poor in the area of private forests and anthropogenic water contamination was evident in summer due to the existence of campgrounds and private residences in the uppermost stream areas. The findings of this study indicate the significance of the control of human-induced contamination and the effective management of private forests to reduce the outflow of loading substances in the head water of water service.
In order to evaluate the effects of several measures on the control of dioxin emissions in the incineration of organic waste liquid, the actual results for 12 years and annual changes in the dioxin concentrations at the Kyoto Institute of Technology were analyzed. Although the college disposal plant is small, the stringent campus standard for dioxin emissions of less than 0.1 ng-TEQ/m3 (legal standard: 10 ng-TEQ/m3) has been met for more than a decade. The dilution of chlorine in organic waste liquid by less than 10%, the improvement of the incineration method, and the introduction of catalyst equipment have been effective in reducing dioxin emissions. The catalyst equipment can reduce not only dioxin but also nitrous oxide emissions. The dioxin concentrations in sewage water were 3.576 pg-TEQ/L and 1.741 pg-TEQ/L in 2000 and 2001, respectively, but they declined sharply to 0.215 pg-TEQ/L in 2002. The dioxin concentrations remained around 0.2 pg-TEQ/L from 2002 through 2005, further decreased to 0.031 pg-TEQ/L in 2006 and decreased to 0.006 pg-TEQ/L in 2010, which was about one-six hundredth of that in 2000. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs in 2000 and 2001 were 3.309 pg-TEQ/L (92.5%) and 1.547 pg-TEQ/L (88.9%), respectively, which accounted for the high values. The contributions of PCDDs and PCDFs to total dioxins in sewage water were 80% in 2002 and 2003. In most years after 2004, the contributions of coplanar PCBs were 60%. The dioxins in the sewage water may have been affected by the combustion origin in 2000 and 2001, and its contribution may have decreased after that. The soil dioxin concentration measured in 2000 was around 4 pg-TEQ/g.
A GC/MS method was examined for applicability for the determination of pesticides in river water. This method can determine samples through the use of a database of information regarding compounds for identification and quantification. Retention time and MS response were made consistent but specific for each compound using retention time locking for the former and the combination of DFTPP tuning and internal standard method for the latter, thereby compiling over 150 pesticides. In addition, the MS response ratio of target ion and qualifier ion (TQ ratio) and the MS spectrum also acquired under DFTPP tuning were compiled. Simulation samples were prepared by extracting river water with dichloromethane and then concentrating by thousand. The concentrates were then fortified to 1 μg/mL with 70 pesticides in the database. The samples were determined with a GC/MS system which was different from the one used for the acquisition of the complied data. The relative differences of obtained retention times between those in the database were 0.2-0.3%. Quantification values, even though most of them shifted higher than the expected by the influence of matrix effect, were within the range from half to twice of the fortified value (0.6-1.8 μg/mL). Those were coincident enough considering that the data was acquired without standard substance compensation. And for most of the data, a MS library search resulted in high match quality and TQ ratios also showed good coincidence. Those results prove that the database method is very useful for the determination of pesticides in river water.
In biology and medical science experiments, prejudging in special committees and applications to the authorities are required. Therefore, it is demanded that the research institution manages the experiments concerned properly. In RIKEN, the Safety Division deals with safety issues in a wide range of fields, including physics, chemistry, biology and medical science. This time we have developed a web application system in order to improve the efficiency of the management in the biology and medical science experiments. The introduction of this system allowed preparation of documents such as various applications, notifications and report on the web browser. And this system enabled us to carry out the centralized management of experiment workers and experiment plans. In addition, the exchanges with the researcher and the manager became smoother, and the acceleration of the procedure was realized because the system allowed online checking of the status of the procedures and the details of the approval process at any time. Also, this system is utilized not only for the management of various documents but also for the check of experiment enforcement situation and the management of biological materials effectively.