The methane fermentation method is often used to process organic waste such as animal manure and garbage. The method attracts much attention since it works as a technology for producing renewable energy form organic waste, which changes organic waste into biogases such as methane and carbon dioxide. However, the methane fermentation process has a problem in that it involves large amounts of wastewater because organic waste is diluted with much water. In order to solve this problem, we devised a hydrolysis techn1que using an aerobic thermophilic bacterium, Anoxybacillus sp. MU3, as a pre-treatment method in methane fermentation under an aerobic high temperature environment (80°C).Solubilization of sewage sludge by strain MU3, isolated from a hot spring, was investigated as a pretreatment for the methane fermentation process. Strain MU3 could be grown at an optimum temperature of 60°C. When strain MU3 was added to sewage sludge under the high temperature condition, the water-soluble CODcr value after 48 hours improved 40% compared with sample at the start of the test. The methane fermentation reactor (effective volume: 5 cubic meters) in which the sewage grime wonderment solubilization, was used to perform methane fermentation. At a SRT (sludge retention time) of 10 days, the VSS (volatile suspended solids) removal was 65%, the amount of biogas produced was 6,300/L, and the methane content in the biogas was 64%. The biogas yield per VSS removed was 1,133.6L/kg-VSS, that is, tow times greater than that of other sewage sludge treatment facilities.
Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, BPA) is widely used as an ingredient in the manufacture of epoxy carbonate, poly carbonate and polyester styrene. Recently, some chemicals which are structurally similar to BPA (BPA related compounds: BPs) are coming to be used and it is reported that they have estrogenic activity on aquatic organisms. In this study, we determined the ability of Portulaca oleracea root and horse radish peroxidase (HRP) to remove 5 BPs (BPA, BPAF, BPZ, TDP and MBP) from water samples. When the initial BPs concentrations were 1 ppm, as same as BPA, BPZ and MBP were indicated removable ability at over 80% within 48hr, but BPAF could not be removed. The case of HRP, BPA, BPZ and TDP were indicated removable ability at over 45% within 60 min, but BPAF was removed 11.7 %.
Physiochemical degradation of Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichloro-phenoxy)-phenol) was attempted using a pulse discharge system and the structures of intermediate products were specified. Three kinds of intermediates such as dichlorophenol, hydroxylated triclosan and dihydroxylated chlorophenol were produced by the pulsed discharge system. The half life of a triclosan solution of 1 mg/L was 15.2 min.
This report describes the results of the research project “Industrial Safety and Health Law and Universities”, which was executed by the research funds of The Academic Consociation of Environmental Safety and Waste Management Japan through FY 2006 - 2008. High Pressure Gas Safety Law, Fire Services Act, fire law, etc. are laws for industrial manufacturing factories, and may not fit properly for universities because they have different functions. In other words, compliance to those laws is sometimes very difficult for universities. However, it is essential to guarantee public and occupational hygiene and safety that are main aim of those laws. The proposal for realistic measure for either legislation or administrative control fit for universities is the main purpose of this project.
This report describes the results of the research project "Development and Exploitation of Information System for Safety Management of Chemicals", which was executed by the research funds of the Academic Consociation of Environmental Safety and Waste Management, Japan through FY 2006-2008. The information system for safety management of chemicals was developed and accident information such as fire and explosion at laboratories in research and educational institutes and universities were collected and analyzed. To prevent accidents in laboratories it is found that information on properties of materials is needed and risk assessment of experimental conditions such as equipment, temperature and pressure is indispensable. Furthermore, experimental skill has a strong influence on the probability of accident and one should pay attention to the purity of materials, strength and material of equipment and scale up effect when the experimental plan is made.