Guaranteeing the safety of students and both academic and administrative staff is the most crucial issue in facility maintenance at the national university corporations and other institutions that form the infrastructure of education research activities. The Great East Japan Earthquake has reminded us of the importance of earthquake countermeasures for facilities. In addition to measures for making structures more earthquake-resistant, measures for preventing the fall of non-structural objects, such as ceilings and lights, are considered to be important. Also, measures for improving health and safety in laboratory facilities require a response that unifies facilities improvement and administrative operation. Therefore, it is essential to develop a system.
During the Tohoku Earthquake, severe interior damages happened in the buildings of the School of Engineering of the Tohoku University. In order to perform the earthquake countermeasures to goods in laboratories smoothly, Health and Safety Committee of the School of Engineering created a guideline for earthquake countermeasures to laboratory goods. In this paper, contents of the proposed guideline and the determine process are presented. The priority of the guideline is to prevent the occurrence of human suffering. Moreover, to reduce the damages of interior goods of laboratory is another consideration. The guideline explains the importance about the estimation of behavior of goods during the earthquake. It shows the method of the practical countermeasures to control them in three steps. Firstly organizing the work area and decreasing the unnecessary goods should be done. Secondly goods should be arranged to avoid the evacuation failure and injury following the recommended layout. Finally the countermeasure of rollover and movement of goods should be done. To the countermeasure of the final stage, during large earthquakes, the examination based on the calculation of the seismic coefficient (KH) is necessary. Therefore, the target seismic coefficient and the method of calculating the basic strength of anchors are shown. Based on the experience of earthquake disasters earthquake countermeasures to those commonly used bookshelves, goods shelves, and high-pressure gas cylinder are manifested.Moreover, some words of caution about the countermeasures to the experimental equipment on the laboratory bench and the fume cupboards are shown. In the proposed guideline, earthquake countermeasures of major goods in the labs of university are proposed. It can be considered as a useful tool to encourage the application of earthquake countermeasure. Furthermore, because the strength assessment method is provided, following which a lot of limitations can be applied to earthquake countermeasures to experiment equipment.
In university unlike factory, many researchers share space and carry out their own experiments in a laboratory. Therefore, in addition to the injuries by experimental accidents due to own work, there are significant cases that the injuries occurred by the accidents caused by other researchers. In such an environment, lab-design of whole laboratory space which enables to optimize the placement of persons, equipment, and experiments in the laboratory becomes very important to secure the safety and health of researchers as well as the risk assessment of each experiment. Whenever the experiments in the laboratory changed, the lab-design should be reconsidered. However, it is almost impossible to rearrange everything inside the laboratory freely including heavy instruments such as work bench, fume hood etc. In addition, we should consider about air-flow during the lab-design. We can prevent the exposure of researchers towards hazardous fume by understanding the source of fume and the indoor current of air. On the other hand, in Japan, counter measures for earthquake becomes important. Certain fixation of facilities and the apparatus is necessary, but the fixation will reduce flexibility. Our group developed frame system to build up the hexahedron structure inside a laboratory to achieve a safe and comfortable laboratory. As this system can provide the three important elements for lab-design such as flexibility, airflow, and counter measure for earthquake, this system can be one of the answers for realization of safe and comfortable laboratory.
Fume hood is exhaust hood used in a laboratory and needs proper exhaust air volume to perform its function. The exhaust volume accounts for larger ratio of the capacity of the room and such exhaust air volume actually contains the exhaust air-conditioned air. As a result, energy cost becomes rather expensive. So far considering securing safety, various methods to reduce exhaust air volume have been conducted. However, from the user's point of view, it is still hard to understand those methods and anxiety still remains that such circumstance might cause some unpredictable problems. For the users, it is essential to understand the minimal knowledge and important attentions in planning so that they can catch up with the present mainstream of exhaust air reduction. Users need to understand a new technology by the clarification of specifications and procedure of the indication method while the suppliers must help them by offering clear thoughts and proposal. It is important for both parties to cooperate and exchange productive ideas for building optimal laboratory circumstance.
When using high-pressure gas in Japan, we are regulated by High-Pressure Gas Safety Law. This situation is the same in educational and research activities of university. This law was enacted in 1922 (the Taisho era of Japan), and the basic structure of the law has not changed much even now. So far, amendments of the law and related regulations have been repeated on the basis of the gas industrial activities and accidents mainly. The current law has been effective against the safety of production and sales of gas industry. By the way, because it was initially Control Law, what the law does not assume is forbidden fundamentally. It has become an unreasonable regulation for advanced research and development. To promote the education and research under the unreasonable regulations, it is necessary that we engaged in them to take safety measure ourselves. And, we must understand correctly for equipment of high-pressure gas. It is also necessary to rationalize High-Pressure Gas Safety Law and related regulations to realize the educational and research environment of higher level.
A patrolling is one of the fundamental activities for health and safety management. The implementation of the patrol in universities has gone unnoticed by most people; however, its significance has increased as health and safety management in universities has advanced. The purpose of the patrol is to prevent accidents by identifying the risks in laboratories and conducting countermeasures. Also, "confirmation of compliance with laws and regulations and policies", " increases in consciousness and communication", and "evaluation of the safety level and horizontal development of good practices” are required by the patrol. The management system for the patrol requires reports to the administrator on the findings and confirmation of proper countermeasures being taken according to those findings. As practical knowledge and skills are required in the persons who are charged with the patrol, an education program is necessary. In fact, changing the contents of the patrol according to the status of laboratories and the university is desirable, and also how to present the findings must be determined. It is generally considered that the patrol has been implemented in most of universities, but the actual situation is unclear. In future, evaluation of the effectiveness and standardization of the patrolling method is required. The relevant issues are the development an information system for sharing good practices and the associated tools such as a database, checklists, and other information.
Safety issue in university is often limited narrowly on the experimental research activities of science or engineering, which is apt to be regarded as technical problems. However, safety must be the essential condition for universities from the view point of their missions of education, research, and societal contributions, and should be defined allover beyond the faculties, departments and institutes in the university. Management of maintaining high level safety in the university is a difficult issue due to the conditions where students, the majority of university member, do not stay long by replacing every year, in addition academic and administrative staffs are busy. Under this situation, safety culture could only be established by the efforts of both sides, bottom-up approach of carrying out safety education and topdown approach of safety management in university administration. In this paper, the principle of safety management of universities and SMS, safety management system will be discussed. Necessity of programmed safety education for students will be also discussed. In addition, the forward-looking message that safety is essential for development of science will be stressed.
Recently, incineration ash has attracted attention as a cement material. However, the ash contains dioxins, heavy metals and chlorines. Therefore, this ash recycling needs an appropriate disposal method like preventing elution of heavy metals. As an effective prevention method, there is the hydration reaction mechanism of cement. In this study, we evaluated the ability of preventing elution of lead compounds by the Availability Test and the Ministry of Environment Notification No.46 Test (No.46 Test) using eight samples: a raw fly ash (FA) and seven different cements solidified by the hydration reaction made from incinerated ash. All samples excluding FA showed validity to suppress lead elution levels in both leaching tests. And, in the No.46 test, seven cement samples did not exceed the reference values. In addition, we analyzed the existent form of lead in solidified incinerated ash by Powder X-ray diffraction. We used three types solidified cement samples: Normal (no addition), contained 1% lead dinitrate, contained 1% lead dichloride. As a result, the sample to which lead was added showed the existence of a lead sulfide. It showed that this cement solidified method can be made into an existent form which cannot elute lead easily. We checked the difference in quantity of lead elution between two types of lead addition samples by the leaching tests. Therefore, we concluded that the existence form of lead is an important factor concerning elution of lead by solidification of incineration ashes.
Fluoride ion in the mixed solutions of fluoride and tetrafluoroborate ions can be analyzed without the interference of aluminum ion with fluoride ion-selective electrode using Gran's plot method after the decomposition of refractory tetrafluoroborate ion. Tetrafluoroborate ion was stable at room temperature under neutral and alkaline conditions and its 20% was remaining even at pH 3 after 2 months. However, tetrafluoroborate ion was decomposed almost quantitatively after 48h by aluminum addition in the pH 3-4. This indicated that tetrafluoroborate ion was quickly decomposed by adding an aluminum compound to form fluoroaluminate.After the decomposition of tetrafluoroborate ion, fluoride ion in even wastewater from the scrubber of organic waste-liquid treatment facility was removed to meet the effluent standard (8ppm) using two-step treatment method by combining precipitation of fluoride with calcium and fluoride adsorption resin column.
The concept of "Eco-museum" has been accepted in Japan as a theory of community development by which local residents utilize their own human and natural resources. The concept originated from a rethinking of the role of museums, and in Japan Eco-museum has become accepted as a methodology of community development. This article explores how the concept of Eco-museum can be adapted to the environmental management of the university campus. The conservation and utilization of the university campus as an Eco-museum is discussed from the viewpoint of the activities of the university museum and environmental management at Hiroshima University.