The manmade crises are divided into two categories, one is a non-intentional mistake, and the other is an intentional crime including the terrorism. The countermeasures against CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radioactive, Nuclear, and explosive) threats include the consequence management, precautions, and mitigations. With these countermeasures the improvement of security is anticipated. The consequence management and the precautions against CBRNE threats are also needed in universities. The mutual interestedness, communications, and powerful imaginations make universities safe. There is no easy and simple royal road to achieve the safety on CBRNE threats.
A characteristic of sciences research and education is associated with multiplicity, originality, a high level of expertise, and interdisciplinary, therefore the chemical substances and risks involved are complex and diverse. Researchers performing the experiments at universities are not always experienced and are inexperienced student, and furthermore constituent human resources are becoming more diverse and mobile. Accordingly, chemical substances users and administrators have to collect relevant information of chemical substances, evaluate the purpose and method of chemical substances management, and address risk assessment with high-accuracy based on common understanding. However, we cannot avoid accident due to chemical substances by just complying with laws, and it is necessary for chemical substances users to learn attitude of safety management beyond respecting rules and regulations. It is important to establish a comprehensive, effective and concrete education program to develop talented specialist who can solve a variety of challenges by transforming learned knowledge into knowledge that can be applicable in handling chemical substances.
As a staff for the management of chemical substances, we often say simply “Operation of our chemicals management system doesn't work well”, but it seems to be caused by different reasons such as the computer system itself, master database tables, the management structure, the operational structure, and so on.In fact, discussions about issues in operating chemicals management systems have continuously been made for the past decade.Unfortunately, however, the discussions have always been done without appropriate classification or organization of the issues.Thus, we still do not share useful information to solve the problems, and most institutions struggle to improve the operation of their systems. First, this paper surveys the development of operation of chemicals management systems in Japanese academic institutions.Then, the paper describes our finding that the various issues that the chemicals management staff has can be well-organized based on relationships between “management of chemicals” and “operation of chemicals management systems”. Namely, we found that the highest concept is “management of chemicals” and that organization of the problems should never be achieved without locating “operation of chemicals management systems” as a subordinate concept below the highest concept “management of chemicals”. Finally, an overview of “Chemicals Management Systems Diagnosis Map”, which we have developed as a tool to achieve “MIERUKA (visualization)” of the organized problems and their relationships, and how to use of the diagnosis map is described.
We investigated the effect of inappropriate handling and management, such as the inappropriate use of chemicals, on laboratory environment and analysis values in two scenarios. One scenario was contamination of the laboratory environment because of inappropriate handling, and the other was inappropriate handling in a contaminated laboratory environment. For simulating the contamination of the laboratory environment by inappropriate handling, we recreated several inappropriate situations while handling chloroform; then, we investigated their effect on chloroform concentration in air. It was observed that when paper used for wiping 5 mL of spilled chloroform was disposed of in the open-system container,chloroform concentration in the air around the container increased to approximately 10 ppm. Considering that the occupational exposure limit of chloroform in the workplace was 3 ppm in Japan, it was verified that disposing of the contaminated paper in the open-system container had an immense effect on the evaluation of the laboratory environment. To simulate inappropriate handling in a contaminated laboratory, we considered abandoning the equipment and samples in a laboratory where dust easily enters and accumulates. Moreover, actual dust in the laboratory was investigated to be a pollution-causing factor in the determination of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, and Se) in tap water. Contamination may have been possible with 0.15-0.55 mg/L of Fe in the sample solution when 2 mg dust was mixed with 10 % HNO3 solution while heating during the pre-treatment process. In Japan, the maximum limit of Fe in tap water is 0.3 mg/L by law. Therefore, it was revealed that dust from outside had a significant effect on the analysis of tap water.
Universities discharge various kinds of waste from activities such as education, research and medical care. This waste should be disposed of safely, with consideration for environmental conservation and public health, and according to relevant laws. Therefore, universities in Japan have the treatment facilities on campus for the waste from experimental facilities since the 1970s, but the number of facilities decreased due to dioxin problem. Spray combustion system is a primary treatment of organic liquid waste and the treatment equipment with measures against dioxins is currently running. For the treatment of inorganic liquid waste, ferrite treatment, coagulation-sedimentation method and iron-powder treatment are mainly used to combine pretreatment or post-treatment. The Academic Consociation of Environmental Safety and Waste Management provided information and data on waste management at universities and made a manual on external consignment of waste cooperating with waste-related companies in order to improve each other. As a result of efforts of universities and waste-related companies over 40 years, the treatment of waste discharged from universities could be made appropriately. Hence, regardless of on-campus and off-campus (external contractor) waste treatment, the waste from universities should be properly managed and treated in compliance with relevant laws. An organization such as a Center is indispensable for management and operation. It is also important for faculty members and students to realize their responsibility as generators of waste from the educational viewpoint.
Few studies have been reported on the knowledge of fire-protection equipment and fire-risk perception of first-year university students. In the present work, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate the knowledge of fire protection equipment and fire risk perception of undergraduates and graduates belonging to chemical departments. Survey results clearly indicated that most students had a great sense of dread and that few students considered fireinduced smoke and toxic gases as fire hazards. Few undergraduates knew the location of fire protection equipment such as fire extinguishers, indoor fire hydrants, and emergency staircases in the respondent's university building. Furthermore,the percentage of the interviewed students who precisely knew the flash points of commonly-used organic solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-heptane, acetone, and ethyl acetate) was low.
Blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria, can be found all over the world. Some, but not all, blue-green algae can be involved in environmental problems and affect public health. Detailed discussions on blue-green algae have been carried out with regard to its toxicity and outbreak events. However, very little is known about the origin and entry routes of cyanobacteria,which are the preceding stage of green-blue algae. The goal of this study is to pinpoint the origin of the intrusion of the two types of cyanobacteria, Anabaena and Microcystis, at a reservoir catchment. The results of genetic analysis detected the Anabaena genus at a survey site in a fishing pond located half-way up the river, but did not detect it at any other survey sites. On the other hand, in the same analysis Microcystis was detected at all survey sites along the river from the upper to lower reaches. Based on the biological characteristics observed, it is not believed that Anabaena was originally present in the target area, and the results indicate a strong connection with fisheries and tourism resources.
In order to reduce wastes generated by academic activities and to promote their reuse and recycle, based on the concept named campus mine, the management system in University of Freiburg was investigated. There, Department of Environmental Protection is engaged in the waste-management business in the unitary manner, and one of remarkable activities is fair treatment of laboratory wastes including hazardous-chemical materials. Complying with EU (European Union) regulations, wastes are separated and taken out based on their risks and energy costs for treatment. They also pay an attention on recovering valuable scrap metal, such as copper, aluminum and so on, from wasted machines to make a profit. Their management system is regarded as great guide for universities in Japan to reduce not only risks of hazardous wastes but also environmental load brought out by academic activities.