The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference for the future stockpiling of drugs and developing vaccines for treatment of emerging infectious diseases by summarizing the status of drug stockpiling, vaccine development, and related policies during three major outbreaks of avian influenza among humans (H5N1 in 2003, H1N1 in 2009, and H7N9 in 2013). Documents regarding drug stockpiling and vaccine development during three influenza outbreaks have been reviewed. Results indicated that the response to pandemic influenza outbreaks has improved markedly in terms of stockpiles of antivirals and vaccine development. These improvements also suggest advances in related policy planning. These trends also foreshadow better prospects for prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases. However, the rationality of drug stockpiling and international cooperation still needs to be enhanced.
During screening of marine actinomycetes for anti-mycobacterial activity, a new phenoxazine derivative (1) was isolated, along with 6-phenazinediol (2), 6-methoxy-1-phenazinol (3), nocardamin (4), and 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (5), from a culture of Nocardiopsis sp. 236 collected from the west Pacific. The chemical structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-Q-TOF MS data. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-mycobacterial activity in vitro, and only compounds 2 and 3 exhibited weak activity.
The Chinese herbal medicine, Gosha-jinki-gan (GJ) (Niu-Che-Sen-Qi-Wan), has been widely used for treating patients with melalgia, lower back pain, numbness, and diabetic neuropathy. We investigated the effects of GJ on the regulation of serum insulin and triglyceride levels in obese Zucker fatty rats (fa/fa; ZFR). We administrated GJ to 6-week-old ZFR and non-obese lean rats (LR) for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased at 18 weeks in ZFR as compared to the LR. GJ treatment in ZFR significantly suppressed elevation in serum glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels, but no significant differences were observed in body weight and serum cholesterol levels in the ZFR group with GJ treatment compared to the ZFR group without GJ treatment. These results suggest that GJ may improve hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia in ZFR and that GJ may be useful for preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes mellitus in a pre-diabetic state.
α-Santalol is active component of sandalwood oil and has been shown to have chemopreventive effects against chemically and UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice. α-Santalol is also shown to have skin permeation enhancing effects. Honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis bark extract have also been shown to have chemopreventive effects against chemically and UVB-induced skin cancer in mice. This study was conducted to investigate the combination effects of α-santalol, honokiol and magnolol to study any additive/synergistic effects to lower the doses required for chemoprevention. Pretreatment of combinations of α-santalol with honokiol and magnolol significantly decreased tumor multiplicity upto 75% than control, α-santalol, honokiol and magnolol alone in SKH-1 mice. Combination of α-santalol with honokiol and magnolol also decreased cell viability, proliferation, and enhanced apotosis in comparision to α-santalol, honokiol and magnolol alone in Human epidrmoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, the results of present study indicated combinations of α-santalol with honokiol and magnolol could provide chemoprevention of skin cancer at lower doses than given alone.
For successful application of nano-materials in bioscience, it is essential to understand the biological fate and potential toxicity of nanoparticles. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic safety of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) (Fe3O4) in order to provide their diverse applications in life sciences, such as drug development, protein detection, and gene delivery. Concentrations of 10 ppm, 30 ppm, and 70 ppm (10-70 μg/mL) of the MNPs of 8.0 ± 2.0 nm were used. Characterization of MNPs was done with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The MNPs mutagenic potential was evaluated using the Salmonella Ames test with Salmonella strains TA100, TA2638, TA102, and TA98 in the presence and the absence of metabolic activation with S9-liver extract. Genetic mutations at the chromosomal level and extent of DNA damage using the alkaline Comet assay were applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes and HEK-293 cell lines respectively. There were significant changes in the results of the Salmonella mutagenicity test at the 70 ppm concentration of MNPs which might reflect their mutagenic activity at higher concentrations. Cytogenetic evaluation revealed the absence of genetic mutations at the chromosomal level. The extent of DNA damage quantified by Comet assay and the mutagenicity study using Ames test were significantly correlated for the MNPs. Our results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles with the defined physicochemical properties caused apparent toxicity at higher concentrations of 30 ppm and 70 ppm without chromosomal abnormalities under the experimental conditions of this study.
Höltke and his co-workers firstly reported the synthesis and characterization of an inhibitor-based fluorescent imaging probe for aminopeptidase N. This fluorescent probe demonstrated high binding affinity to APN and could specifically bind to APN high expressed cells, thus revealed the distribution of APN. As a milestone, this outstanding work provided a useful tool to understand APN pathophysiology.
It is estimated that there are over ten million rare disease patients in China currently. Due to a lack of effective drugs and reimbursement regulations for medical expenses the diseases bring most patients enormous physical suffering and psychological despair. Past experience in other countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union have shown that legislation is the critical step to improve the miserable situation of rare disease patients. Laws and regulations for rare diseases in these countries prescribe a series of incentives for research and development of orphan drugs which turn out to obviously allow these drugs to flourish. Legislation has also established a drug reimbursement system to reduce the medical burden of the patients. These measures effectively protect the rights and interests of patients with rare diseases. In China, legislation for rare diseases has begun to attract the attention of authorities. It is anticipated that relevant laws and regulations will be established as early as possible to provide safeguards for rare disease patients in China.