Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of metal enzymes which mainly regulates the acetylation level of histone, together with histone acetyl transferases (HATs). Recently, because many HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) have entered clinical trials for both solid and liquid tumors, HDACs are recognized as one of the promising targets for cancer treatment. The current trend is that more and more HDAC inhibitors are used in combination with other antitumor agents in order to optimize their effect and toxicity. Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) which play important roles in cellular signal transduction pathways and regulate series of physiological and biochemical processes, are another family of hot antitumor targets. This brief review will mainly talk about several reported chimeric HDACs-PTKs inhibitors.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a major public health threat as well as a big challenge to global efforts of tuberculosis control. The management of MDR-TB patients is difficult, expensive, challenging and quite often leads to treatment failure. To avoid further transmission, a comprehensive approach for rapid detection, proper treatment and effective public health measures must be ensured. It must also be emphasized that even optimal treatment of MDR-TB will not alone curb the epidemic. Efforts must be focused on the effective use of first-line drugs in every new case so as to prevent the ultimate emergence of MDR-TB.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of dinoprostone insert, compared with dinoprostone gel, for cervical ripening and induction of labor in women at term. We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant papers to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting dinoprostone insert and gel used for cervical ripening and induction of labor. Fifteen RCTs involving 1779 women were included. Dinoprostone insert could greatly contribute to vaginal delivery (VD) within 24 h compared with dinoprostone gel (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.34, 4.13) and the researchers found obvious statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). Yet a meta-analysis of the rates of VD, artificial assisted vaginal delivery and caesarean section (CS) revealed no margin between dinoprostone insert and gel. Dinoprostone insert showed a distinct superiority in terms of VD within 24 h and had an advantage of a shorter hospital stay and less postpartum hemorrhage in contrast to gel. Even though the insert did not perform much better than gel in decreasing the rate of CS and increasing the rate of VD, yet the superior benefit of the vaginal insert compared to gel was still not difficult to observe.
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug which has been widely used in many areas of surgery. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to review randomized controlled trials (RCT) of the effectiveness and safety of topical TXA treatment in reducing total blood loss and transfusion rate for patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). A literature search was undertaken. Five eligible reports match the inclusion and exclusion standard. The topical administration of TXA groups revealed lower total blood loss(mean difference - 347ml, 95% CI, - 411 to - 282 mL; p < 0.00001) and transfusion rate (OR, 0.23 (p < 0.00001; 95% CI, 0.14-0.38)) compared with control groups. Meanwhile there was no statistically significant difference in the risk of developing thromboembolic events (OR, 1.64 (95% CI, 0.39-6.97); p = 0.5). Topical administration of TXA could significantly reduce total blood loss and transfusion requirements in primary THA, without increased thromboembolic complications.
Staphylococcus aureus Newman strain and several methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates were grown on agar plates prepared with conventional lots of tryptic soy broth (TSB). Cell growth of these strains was inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of a particular product lot (lot A), whereas the cell growth of S. aureus RN4220 strain and several other MRSA clinical isolates was not inhibited. The cell growth of a strain of S. epidermidis was also inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of lot A, whereas the cell growth of Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli was not inhibited. Although cell growth of the Newman strain was inhibited on agar plates containing TSB of lot A that was autoclaved in stainless steel or glass containers, cell growth inhibition was not observed when the medium was autoclaved in polypropylene containers. Compounds that inhibited the cell growth of the Newman strain were extracted from a polypropylene tube that was preincubated with liquid medium prepared from TSB of lot A. These findings suggest that polypropylene-binding compounds in TSB of lot A inhibited the cell growth of S. aureus Newman strain, some MRSA clinical isolates, and S. epidermidis.
Previously, it was reported that Enterococcus mundtii (E. mundtii) was associated with flacherie disease of silkworm larvae reared on artificial diet. In this study, we report that E. mundtii was isolated from diseased silkworm larvae, and validated as a pathogenic bacterium of the animal. When silkworm larva was infected with 1.04 × 106 colony-forming units of E. mundtii via oral administration of diet, half population died within six days, indicating that the bacterium is pathogenic to silkworm. Less severe infection was found to cause anorexia and hamper the development of larvae. This pathogen was found to proliferate in both time- and dose-dependent manner in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal. The bacterium was isolated from powder of artificial diet made from mulberry leaves, and from mulberry leaves growing at a field. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination revealed that this bacterium was susceptible to tested antibiotics. Vancomycin treatment of diet significantly decreased the number of E. mundtii in intestine of silkworm larvae infected with the bacteria, compared to control. Furthermore, autoclaving or gamma ray irradiation of diet was also effective for exclusion of E. mundtii from the diet without the loss of its nutrient capacities. These results suggest that mulberry leaves used in making artificial diet for silkworm larvae is one of the sources of E. mundtii infection; and that antibiotic treatment, autoclaving or gamma ray irradiation of artificial diet can exclude the bacteria.
The current study aimed to identify the differences presented in the proteome of fluconazole-susceptible isolates of Candida glabrata compared to those with fluconazole-resistant ones. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis was applied to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant isolates of C. glabrata. Eight proteins including aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, translation elongation factor 3, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, ribosomal protein L5, coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, pyruvate kinase, G-beta like protein, and F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit were found to be more abundantly represented, while four proteins including vitaminB12-(cobalamin)-independent isozyme of methionine synthase, microtubule-associated protein, adenylosuccinate synthetase, and aldose reductase were found to be less abundantly represented in fluconazole-resistant strains versus those with fluconazole-susceptible ones. These differentially expressed proteins were primarily associated with energy metabolism, stress response, and macromolecule synthesis. Proteins associated with energy metabolism, stress response, and macromolecule synthesis may play a role in the development of fluconazole resistance in the clinical isolates of C. glabrata. Multiple different mechanisms are involved in the development of fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata. These findings provide a scientific basis for discovering new genes and mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata.
Recently several compounds from Okinawa plants including Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) were shown to inhibit directly the oncogenic/ageing kinase PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1). Furthermore, it was recently revealed that both PAK1 and PAK4 (p21-activated kinase 4) are equally essential for the melanogenesis in melanoma cells. Thus, in this study, we tested if several alpinia compounds inhibit the melanogenesis in melanoma (B16F10) cells, as well as the PAK1-dependent up-regulation of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured adipocytes (3T3-L1) without any cytotoxicity. The effect of alpinia compounds on the melanogenesis was measured by both the melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melanoma cells treated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a melanogenesis stimulating hormone. We found that (1E,3E,5E)-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl)-2,5-dihydrofuran (MTD), 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK), labdadiene, hispidin and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) at 50 μg/mL reduced the melanin content by 63-79%. The MTD, DK and hispidin, at 50 μg/mL, inhibited tyrosinase activity by 70-83% in melanoma cells. Among these compounds, labdadiene, MTD, (E)-2,2,3,3-Tetramethyl8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yl)octahydro-1H-quinolizine (TMOQ) and hispidin strongly inhibited the ROS production. Hispidin, labdadiene and MTD at 20 μg/mL inhibited NO production by over 70%. These findings altogether suggest that some of these alpinia compounds could be potentially useful for the prevention or treatment of hyperpigmentation and obesity.
Temozolomide plays a critical role in curing glioma at present. The purpose of this work was to develop a suitable drug delivery system which could prolong the half-life, improve the brain targeting, and reduce the systemic effect of the drug. Temozolomide-liposomes were formulated by the method of proliposomes. They were found to be relatively uniform in size of 156.70 ± 11.40 nm with a narrow polydispersity index (PI) of 0.29 ± 0.04. The average drug entrapment efficiency and loading capacity were 35.45 ± 1.48% and 2.81 ± 0.20%, respectively. The pH of temozolomide-liposomes was 6.46. In vitro release studies were conducted by a dynamic dialysis. The results showed that temozolomide released slowly from liposomes compared with the solution group. The release behavior of temozolomide-liposomes was in line with First-order kinetics and Weibull equation. The pharmacokinetics study was evaluated by pharmacokinetics parameters. The t1/2β and MRT of temozolomide-liposomes were 3.57 times and 1.27 times greater than that of temozolomide solution. The Cmax and AUC values of temozolomide-liposomes were 1.10 times and 1.55 times greater than that of temozolomide solution. The results of pharmacokinetics study showed temozolomide-liposomes prolonged the in vivo circulation time and increased AUC. Furthermore, the biodistribution in mice showed that temozolomide-liposomes preferentially decreased the accumulation of temozolomide in heart and lung and increased the drug concentration in brain after i.v. injection, which implied that temozolomide-liposomes improved the therapeutic effect in the brain and reduced the toxicity in lung and heart.
We investigated the preparation of oral granules that are solid when stored and that will swell and gel via water absorption, to address problems experienced by patients when taking medication. Important physical properties of gelling granules include elasticity that is normally smooth, quick water absorption and swelling properties that allow easy swallowing. We selected gelatin (GEL), succinylated gelatin (SUC-GEL) and ι-carrageenan (CAR) as matrix polymers that can undergo gelation at room temperature or at cold temperatures. Saccharide and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were added to prepare the experimental granules. The best matrix gelling granule was SUC-GEL. When xylitol (XYL), sorbitol (SOR) and maltitol (MAL) were added, elasticity was improved, and PEG improved the granule’s water absorption behavior, which is an important element involved in gelation. The best granules were prepared by selecting SUC-GEL as the matrix and adding a small amount of PEG and XYL in amounts equal to that of SUC-GEL.
In the present study; the glutinous Niaw Sanpatong (NSP) and Niaw Koko-6 (NKK), and the non-glutinous Jasmine (JM) and Saohai (SH) were chemically modified. The difference of these rice varieties on the physicochemical characteristics of the modified rice powders and the properties of the derived gels were evaluated. X-ray diffractometer was used for crystalline structure investigation of the rice powders and gels. A parallel plate rheometer was used to measure the rheological property of the gels. It was found that the non-glutinous varieties produced gels with higher mucoadhesive properties than the glutinous rice. Rheological behavior of JM and SH gels was pseudoplastic without yield value whereas that of NSP and NKK gels was plastic with the yield values of 1077.4 ± 185.9 and 536.1 ± 45.8 millipascals-second (mPas), respectively. These different properties are considered to be due to the amylose content in different rice variety. The results suggest that the non-glutinous rice varieties with high amylose content are the most suitable for preparing gels as local delivery systems via the mucosal membrane.
The physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties (pH, peel force, water-vapor permeability, and stretchability) of brand-name and generic ketoprofen products were evaluated and compared. The pHs of Mohrus as a brand-name product and Teikoku as a generic product were low (about 4). Among the other generic products, Patell and Nichi-Iko had a pH of about 4.3 while Frestol, Raynanon, BMD, and Touchron showed a pH of 4.6-5.2, which was in the pH range of normal healthy skin (4.5-6.5). The adhesive force was high (≥ 1.38) for Mohrus as a brand-name product as well as for Teikoku and Patell as generic products, but it was low (≤ 0.57) for the other 5 generic products. The water-vapor permeabilities of Mohrus as a brand-name product and Teikoku and Patell as generic products were low, being less than 1/6 of those for the other 5 generic products. Among the 5 generic products, BMD showed the highest water-vapor permeability (1,330 g/m2), and the other products also showed a value ≥ 1,100 g/m2. The elongatedness of Mohrus was the lowest (15.5 cm), and that of Raynanon was the highest (24.5 cm); the difference was 9 cm. In this study, the physiochemical and pharmaceutical properties of ketoprofen tapes were clarified, which will allow pharmacists to provide products according to the needs of each patient when a brand-name product is changed to a generic one.