Blade type titanium implants were experimentally fabricated by the wire type electric discharge machine and were followed by the chemical polishing using HF/HNO3 solution, the chemical oxidation using HNO3 solution, the anodic oxidation using H3PO4/H2O2 solution, and the barrel polishing using alumina base polishing chips. The surface of the samples were analyzed by the Auger electron spectroscopy. Auger spectra from each sample were measured and depth profiles were obtained by measuring the peak heights and plotting them as a function of sputtering time. The peaks of oxygen, titanium, and carbon were found in Auger spectra from all samples. Considering the ratio of 0/Ti peak height, the surface of samples treated by chemical oxidation, anodic oxidation and barrel polishing was considered to be covered by the titanium oxide. The results of the depth profiles appeared that the thickness of the surface oxide of the sample treated by anodic oxidation was significantly thicker than that of the samples treated by other treatments. Therefore the thickness of oxide films on titanium implants was found to be determined by the different finishing procedures of implants.
The specimens from the pure titanium plate were treated for the mechanical polishing using the emery paper, the chemical polishing using the HF/HNO3 polishing bath, and the electropolishing using the mixture of ethanol, n-butanol, ZnCl2, A1Cl3 as an electrolyte. XPS analysis on the polished surdace and subsequently sputtered surface was performed. The peaks of O, Ti, C were found in all specimens. The ratio of O/Ti calculated from the atomic concentration of the specimens after sputtering was about 2.0 in all specimens. Therefore the oxide film (TiO2) wa considered to be formed on the surface of specimens treated by every polishing procedures. Besides the evident peaks of 0, Ti, and C, featured peaks were observed such as Si in the mechanically polished surface, F in the chemically polished surface, and Zn and Cl in the electropolished surface. Therefore these elements were considered to react titanium and were incorporated into oxide film.
A thermometric study was conducted on two experimental (Trial device and Panals 1000; National/Panasonic) and two commercially available (Semilaser Nanox LX-801; G.C. Co. and Trinpl D; Yoshida) semiconductor lasers. This study was carried out in order to verify whether or not these laser types produce any substantial amount of heating during its application on tooth structure. Temperature measurements were done in vitro, using a thermal camera (Thermovision 870; AGEMA) and a thermocouple sensor (Hi-temperature tester). Maximum temperature elevations were recorded during a 60,120, and 180 second laser exposure. Results showed that factors such as exposure time, power level and operation mode of the laser device, influenced the thermal effects during irradiation. Although the semiconductor laser devices evaluated demonstrated thermal effects, the intrapulpal temperature elevation was not sufficient to cause pulp al damage in vivo.