The novelist John Fowles (1926-2005) was greatly influenced by the work of D. H. Lawrence. In this article, I will focus on the references and allusions to Lawrence in Daniel Martin, a typically Lawrencian novel of Fowles's oeuvre, and attempt to shed new light on Lawrence's writing as well as that of Fowles. In Daniel Martin, the references to Lawrence are related to the problem of representation and historicity, which is a key subject of this novel. In my opinion, Fowles greatly appreciates Lawrence's critical insight into representation and therefore refers or alludes to him in the important scenes of Daniel Martin. Lawrence examines not only the linguistic aspect but also the political aspect of representation. Since the linguistic or semiotic aspect is concerned with the problem of arbitral connection between a signifier and its referent, the context of the connection- historicity- comes to the fore as a crucial part of representation. Further, Lawrence critically regards the representation which is unaware of its arbitrariness and its context as “democratic.” This discernment underpins his criticism of the times when predicaments of “democracy” led to various political issues. The insight into representation shared with Fowles leads both writers to express what constitutes the context of their writing but is difficult to be described per se-we can regard it as an equivalent of “feeling, ” to use one of the key concepts of Raymond Williams, who thinks highly of Lawrence in terms of the concept. It is no mere coincidence that we can identify “feeling” as one of the most significant themes of Daniel Martin.
Lawrence's reputation as a major writer in English Literature was established in the mid-1950s. He was either ignored or severely criticized prior to that period. The so-called“Lawrence revival”took place in the mid-1950s, inspired by a series of critical studies by F.R. Leavis. This outline of Lawrence's reception seems to be generally accepted in Lawrence studies. This paper is an attempt to examine the validity of this outline, and to propose a little modification to it. First, obituary articles are reviewed in order to trace the characteristics of the criticism Lawrence received. Then, some signs of an improvement in evaluation after World War II will be observed. The paper points out a sort of movement or tendency to appreciate Lawrence's anti-intellectual philosophy from a humanistic point of view. It will also be suggested that Leavis' critical attitude and his influence on the literary scene have something in common with this humanistic ideological current of the post-war society.
In Women in Love, two couples reach contrasting ends. The goal of this paper is to clarify, using René Girard's victim theory, what makes the ends of the two couples different in terms of the aggressive action both couples must endure. The key is how to confront the outside world, which for any person consists of other people and things not human. Birkin and Ursula have been confronting the outside world directly. Hence, they often struggle, once even to the extent of aggression, but they come to see they love one another. Evidently, aggression has a function in building their relationship. However, Gerald and Gudrun have not been confronting the outside world. They avoid showing their aggression directly to anyone and bond by aiming it at a common target, for they fear that they may become victims of the community. They too have a desire for a direct relationship, but can only satisfy it through a sadomasochistic relation. Finally, Gerald's desire to be fulfilled in a more direct relationship can no longer be contained, transforming into an infantile aggression crucial for his relationship with Gudrun.
It is not unusual that D.H. Lawrence refers to Alfred Tennyson in his novels and letters because Lawrence liked reading his poems in his early life. However, there is a letter which should be noted: To E.M. Forster, 28 January 1915, just before he finished writing The Rainbow. In this letter, he explains his ideal world to Forster with the words, “the infant crying in the night, ”which is a quotation from In Memoriam by Tennyson. The point of this letter is that Lawrence, once again, quotes the same phrase in The Rainbow. The aim of this paper is to analyze why he chooses Tennyson and to outline“the ideal world”he tries to describe in The Rainbow when referring to Tennyson. First, the effect of the reference to Tennyson in The Rainbow is examined. Not only the appropriateness of the reference, but also the historical gap between Lawrence and Tennyson is shown. Secondly, the paper points out, as a reason for the occasional reference to him, that they share a common literary attitude. Finally, in order to find the significance of Lawrence's reference to Tennyson in The Rainbow, “the ideal world”Lawrence and Tennyson consider is revealed by comparing“the ways of the soul”which are differently expressed in their works.