Dental Materials Journal
Online ISSN : 1881-1361
Print ISSN : 0287-4547
ISSN-L : 0287-4547
Volume 35 , Issue 2
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
Original Paper
  • Eduardo Moreira da SILVA, Luciana MIRAGAYA, Jaime Dutra NORONHA-FILHO, ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 159-165
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study evaluated the potential of a tri-functional monomer (trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate —TMPTMA) for inclusion in a dental composite organic matrix. Initially, four ternary matrixes with different concentrations (wt%) of bi-functional monomers [BisGMA (G), Bis-EMA (E) and TEGDMA (T)] were analyzed: GET523, GET532, EGT523 and EGT532 (the numbers (n) represent n×10 wt% of each monomer). The following properties were evaluated: degree of conversion, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, absorption, solubility, diffusion coefficient of water and crosslink density. Based on the best overall results obtained for EGT532, all properties were re-evaluated in a matrix where TEGDMA (T) was replaced by a tri-functional monomer, TMPTMA (A)-EGA532. EGA532 presented the best results for flexural strength, hardness, absorption and crosslink density. EGT523, EGT532 and EGA532 presented the lowest diffusion coefficients of water. The overall results indicated that TMPTMA could be useful in formulating organic matrixes suitable for dental restorative composites.
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  • Shizuma SHIBATA, Luiz Clovis Cardoso VIEIRA, Luiz Narciso BARATIERI, J ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 166-173
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the µTBS (microtensile bond strength) of currently available self-etching adhesives with an experimental self-etch adhesive in normal and caries-affected dentin, using a portable hardness measuring device, in order to standardize dentin Knoop hardness. Normal (ND) and caries-affected dentin (CAD) were obtained from twenty human molars with class II natural caries. The following adhesive systems were tested: Mega Bond (MB), a 2-step self-etching adhesive; MTB-200 (MTB), an experimental 1-step self-etching adhesive (1-SEA), and two commercially available one-step self-etching systems, G-Bond Plus (GB) and Adper Easy Bond (EB). MB-ND achieved the highest µTBS (p<0.05). The mean µTBS was statistically lower in CAD than in ND for all adhesives tested (p<0.05), and the 2-step self-etch adhesive achieved better overall performance than the 1-step self-etch adhesives.
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  • Benjaporn THANARATIKUL, Busayarat SANTIWONG, Choltacha HARNIRATTISAI
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 174-179
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study evaluated the microshear bond strength (µSBS) of resin composite to primary dentin using a universal adhesive in etchand-rinse mode or self-etch mode. Flat ground dentin surfaces were created on forty extracted human primary incisors and randomly assigned into four groups (n=10): Adper Single Bond II (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), Single Bond Universal etch-and-rinse (SBUER) and Single Bond Universal self-etch (SBU-SE). Adhesive was applied on the dentin surface, which was subsequently bonded with a resin composite. The µSBS test was performed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The ASB group generated a lower mean µSBS (19.1±3.4 MPa) than those of the other groups [SBU-ER (24.3±2.7 MPa), SBU-SE (25.1±2.4 MPa), and CSE (25.3±2.7 MPa)]. Adhesive failure was the most common failure mode in each group. In conclusion, SBU used in etch-and-rinse or self-etch mode resulted in similar bond strength to primary dentin.
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  • Berrak ÇELIK KÖYCÜ, Pervin İMIRZALIOĞLU, Utku Ahmet ÖZDEN
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 180-186
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Functional occlusal loads and intraoral temperature changes create stress in teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of simultaneous thermomechanical loads on stress distribution related to inlay restored teeth by three-dimensional finite element analysis. A mandibular first molar was constructed with tooth structures, surrounding bone and inlays of Type II gold alloy, ceramic, and composite resin. Stress patterns on the restorative materials, adhesive resin, enamel and dentin were analyzed after simulated temperature changes from 36°C to 4 or 60°C for 2 s with 200-N oblique loading. The results showed that the three types of inlays had similar stress distribution in the tooth structures and restorative materials. Concerning the adhesive resin, the composite resin inlay model exhibited lower stresses than ceramic and gold alloy inlays. Simultaneous thermomechanical loads caused high stress patterns in inlay-restored teeth. Composite resin inlays may be the better choice to avoid adhesive failure.
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  • Huinan LUO, Xuehua TANG, Zhen DONG, Hui TANG, Takashi NAKAMURA, Hirofu ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 187-193
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study evaluated the influences of accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of veneering ceramics used for zirconia frameworks. Five different veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks were used. Twenty specimens were fabricated for each veneering ceramic. All specimens were divided into two groups. One was subjected to accelerated aging and the other was used as a control. Accelerated aging was performed in distilled water for 5 h at 200ºC and 2 atm. The density, open porosity, surface roughness, three-point flexural strength, and Vickers hardness were measured. The results showed that the density, open porosity, and surface roughness of all examined veneering ceramics were changed by the accelerated aging process. Accelerated aging was also found to have a positive effect on strength and a negative effect on the hardness.
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  • Adelaida SÁNCHEZ-ALIAGA, Cláudia Viviane Guimarães PELLISSARI, Cesar A ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 194-203
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of the addition of nystatin, miconazole, ketoconazole, chlorhexidine, and itraconazole into the soft lining materials Softone and Trusoft on their peel bond strength to a denture base acrylic resin was evaluated. Specimens of soft lining materials (n=7) were made without (control) or with the incorporation of antifungals at their minimum inhibitory concentrations to the biofilm of C. albicans and bonded to the acrylic resin. Peel testing was performed after immersion in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, 7 and 14 days. Data (MPa) were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA/Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.05) and the failure modes were classified. The addition of nystatin and ketoconazole did not affect the peel bond strength for up to 14 days. Most failures were predominantly cohesive within soft lining materials. With the exception of itraconazole, incorporating the antifungals into the soft lining materials did not result in values below those recommended for peel bond strength after 7 and 14 days of analysis.
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  • Hirono SASAKI, Ippei HAMANAKA, Yutaka TAKAHASHI, Tomohiro KAWAGUCHI
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 204-209
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on the mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins. Two high-impact acrylic denture base resins were selected for the study. Specimens of each denture base material tested were fabricated according to the manufacturers’ instructions (n=10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit, the elastic modulus and the impact strength of the specimens were evaluated. The flexural strength at the proportional limit of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins did not change after six months’ water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The elastic moduli of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly increased after six months’ water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The impact strengths of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly decreased after water immersion or thermocycling as described above.
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  • Huizi ZHAO, Norihisa AKIBA, Hiroyuki TANIMOTO, Taro YOSHIZAKI, Kaidili ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 210-215
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The cream type of denture adhesives after use cannot be easily removed from oral mucosa and have the potential risk to change the oral flora. The effects of the temperature-responsive hydrogel Pluronic F-127 (PF) on the complex viscosity of denture adhesives were evaluated. Carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) mass fractions (1, 2, 3 and 4%) were added to 20 and 25% PF hydrogels. Complex viscosity was measured over a temperature cycle (40→10→40°C) and fixed temperature points (23 and 37°C). Adhesive strength tests were performed with 2 resin plates at 23 and 37°C. One commercial cream-type denture adhesive, New Poligrip® (NP), was evaluated as a control. Complex viscosity values for PF20% groups at 23°C were lower than those for NP at 37°C. Adhesive strength of PF20% with CMC2%, was higher at 23°C when compared to NP at 37°C, which suggests that PF20%CMC2% is an effective adhesive and is easily removed after mouth rinsing.
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  • Susumu SAKAI, Takahisa ANADA, Kaori TSUCHIYA, Hajime YAMAZAKI, Henry C ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 216-224
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The dissolution behaviors of octacalcium phosphate (OCP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and hydroxyapatite (HA) were compared by implanting the materials in rat subcutaneous pouches for 8 weeks using a filter chamber or immersing them in simulated body fluid (SBF) or Tris-HCl buffer for 2 weeks at pH 7.4 and 37oC. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis were conducted on these materials. Degree of supersaturation (DS) in the two solutions immersed with each calcium phosphate material was calculated from their chemical compositions. The results showed that OCP partially converted to apatitic crystals, while β-TCP and HA remained unchanged after the implantation. The DS of the SBF solution remained slightly supersaturated with respect to OCP and β-TCP, but slightly undersaturated in the Tris-HCl buffer. These findings suggest that previously reported OCP and β-TCP biodegradation could be induced through cell-mediated osteoclastic resorption rather than a simple dissolution process.
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  • Krid KAMONKHANTIKUL, Mansuang ARKSORNNUKIT, Sasipin LAUVAHUTANON, Hide ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 225-232
    Published: March 24, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study investigated the surface roughness and gloss of composite resin CAD/CAM blocks after toothbrushing. Five composite resin blocks (Block HC, Cerasmart, Gradia Block, KZR-CAD Hybrid Resin Block, and Lava Ultimate), one hybrid ceramic (Vita Enamic), one feldspar ceramic (Vitablocs Mark II), one PMMA block (Telio CAD), and one conventional composite resin (Filtek Z350 XT) were evaluated. Surface roughness (Ra) and gloss were determined for each group of materials (n=6) after silicon carbide paper (P4000) grinding, 10k, 20k, and 40k toothbrushing cycles. One-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated significant differences in the Ra and gloss of each material except for the Ra of GRA. After 40k toothbrushing cycles, the Ra of BLO and TEL showed significant increases, while CER, KZR, ULT, and Z350 showed significant decreases. GRA, ENA, and VIT maintained their Ra. All of the materials tested, except CER, demonstrated significant decreases in gloss after 40k toothbrushing cycles.
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  • Hsuan-Wen WANG, Yen-Hsiang CHANG, Chun-Li LIN
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 233-240
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study develops a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced (anatomical SGFR) post and evaluates the mechanical performance in artificial endodontically treated premolars. An anatomical SGFR fiber post with an oval shape and slot/notch designs was manufactured using an injection-molding machine. The three-point bending test and crown/core restorations using the anatomical SGFR and commercial cylindrical fiber posts under fatigue test were executed to understand the mechanical resistances. The results showed that static and dynamic rotational resistance were found significantly higher in the anatomical SGFR fiber post than in the commercial post. The endurance limitations at 1.2×106 cycles were 66.81 and 64.77 N for the anatomical SGFR and commercial fiber posts, respectively. The anatomical SGFR fiber post presented acceptable value of flexural strength and modulus, better fit adaption in the root canal resist torque more efficiency but was not a key issue in the lateral fracture resistance in an endodontically treated premolar.
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  • Huanhuan QIN, Zhouyuan YANG, Li LI, Xu YANG, Jingwang LIU, Xi CHEN, Xi ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 241-249
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Angiogenesis is of great importance in dental tissue engineering. Therefore, it is quite necessary for dental tissue engineering to develop a new scaffold with bioactivity to induce angiogenesis. This study was performed to determine the ability of 1%strontiumdoped calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) to induce angiogenesis by detecting the levels of VEGF and bFGF from cultured human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) tests indicated the growth of hDPCs on 1%SCPP scaffolds was more superior than that on calcium polyphosphate (CPP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds. The detection of MTT indicated 1%SCPP could accelerate proliferation of hDPCs. Further analyzed with ELISA demonstrated the protein levels of VEGF, bFGF from cultured hDPCs on 1%SCPP scaffolds were significantly higher than that on CPP and HA scaffolds. These findings above suggested 1%SCPP could be a promising scaffold for dental tissue engineering to induce angiogenesis.
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  • Yoshiki ISHIDA, Taira MIYASAKA
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 250-256
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Contrary to widespread incise CAD/CAM, little is known about the dental application of 3D printing, especially the possibility of using 3D printing with organic material. The resin patterns of a full crown model were created by four types of 3D printers, a thermofusion device (CX), a digital light processing stereo-lithograph device (B9), a laser stereo-lithograph device (DW) and a multi-jet modeling device (PJ). The dimensional accuracy of the outer and inner diameters and depths of the created model crowns, and the surface roughness of sidewall were investigated. The outer diameters were smaller than the designed value in most conditions. The inner diameters were smaller than the designed value in any enlargement ratio except B9. The depth of CX or B9 tended to become shallower, though that of PJ or DW tended to increase. The surface roughness along the tooth axis direction was greater than that perpendicular to the tooth axis.
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  • Gürel PEKKAN, Serkan SARIDAG, Keriman PEKKAN, Dilek Yigit HELVACIOGLU
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 257-263
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of different yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics used in the fabrication of fixed dental prostheses. Disk-shaped specimens (N=120, n=30 per group) were fabricated with thicknesses of 0.3, 0.5, and 1 mm from the following four Y-TZP ceramics: Cercon ht (Degudent) (CZ), Prettau (Zirkonzahn) (ZZ), Alliance (Kuraray Noritake Dental) (NA), and Ice Zirkon (Zirkonzahn) (ICE). The optical densities of each material were measured from radiographic images, and each material (N=1) were characterized by using XRD and SEM. The results were analyzed with oneway analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.05). In the case of the ICE and NA specimens, the radiopacity significantly differed with thickness (p<0.05). However, the radiopacities of 0.5- and 0.3-mm-thick CZ and ZZ specimens were not significantly different (p>0.05). Full-contour Y-TZP materials have higher radiopacities than those of the conventional Y-TZP materials in decreased thicknesses.
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  • Bei Bei LI, Jia Bin XU, Hong Yan CUI, Ye LIN, Ping DI
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 264-269
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of partial carbon or glass fiber reinforcement on the flexural properties of All-on-Four provisional fixed denture base resin. The carbon or glass fibers were woven (3% by weight) together in three strands and twisted and tightened between the two abutments in a figure-of-“8” pattern. Four types of specimens were fabricated for the three-point loading test. The interface between the denture base resin and fibers was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Reinforcement with carbon or glass fibers between two abutments significantly increased the flexural strength and flexural modulus. SEM revealed relatively continuous contact between the fibers and acrylic resin. The addition of carbon or glass fibers between two abutments placed on All-on-Four provisional fixed denture base resin may be clinically effective in preventing All-on-Four denture fracture and can provide several advantages for clinical use.
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  • Yuki NAGAMATSU, Ker-Kong CHEN, Hiroshi NAGAMATSU, Yoshio KOZONO, Hiros ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 270-277
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Neutral electrolyzed water was developed with new concepts of long-term good durability and minimum corrosiveness to metal in addition to its excellent bactericidal activities similar to acid type of electrolyzed waters. The present study examined the bactericidal effects of the neutral electrolyzed water on disinfection of the alginate impression of a dental arch model contaminated by bacteria. Only 1-min immersion in neutral electrolyzed water could sufficiently disinfect the alginate impression including the metallic tray under ultrasonic with no significant differences from acid electrolyzed waters. No bactericidal effects were found in any electrolyzed water when used as mixing water. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each electrolyzed water in a comprehensive way, it was suggested that neutral electrolyzed water may be the most appropriate for the disinfection of alginate impression.
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  • Kanşad PALA, Neslihan TEKÇE, Safa TUNCER, Merve Efe SERİM, Mustafa DEM ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 278-289
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of resin composites. The materials evaluated were the Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Filtek Z550 and G-aenial Posterior composites. A total of 189 specimens were fabricated for microhardness, roughness, gloss and color tests. The specimens were divided into three finishing and polishing systems: Enhance, OneGloss and Sof-Lex Spiral. Microhardness, roughness, gloss and color were measured after 24 h and after 10,000 thermocycles. Two samples from each group were evaluated using SEM and AFM. G-aenial Posterior exhibited the lowest microhardness values. The mean roughness ranged from 0.37 to 0.61 µm. The smoothest surfaces were obtained with Sof-Lex Spiral for each material. G-aenial Posterior with Enhance was determined to be the glossiest surfaces. All of the materials exhibited similar ΔE values ranging between 1.69 and 2.75. Sof-Lex Spiral discs could be used successfully to polish composites.
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  • Takayuki MASUDA, Kazutoshi KAKIMOTO, Kazuya TAKAHASHI, Yutaka KOMASA
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 290-297
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new method of all-ceramic production using alumina coping has been developed. The present study investigates the influence of secondary firing (glass infiltration firing) conditions. Samples of porcelain build-up without secondary firing were also assessed. The suitability of coping that included secondary firing was found to be affected by the rate of temperature increase during the secondary firing. However, cracking developed in the fired porcelain if porcelain was built up onto secondarily-fired coping. In contrast, cracking did not occur with coping that was not secondarily fired. The bending strength after porcelain build-up was 70 MPa or higher, suggesting the possibility of clinical applications as an anterior crown. These findings establish that this is method of producing allceramic crowns that allows for low-cost manufacture in a short period of about 1 h.
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  • Ah-Rang KIM, Yong-Chan JEON, Chang-Mo JEONG, Mi-Jung YUN, Jae Won CHOI ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 298-308
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to compare the compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and microhardnss of several selfadhesive resin cements (Rely-X U200, Clearfill SA Luting, G-CEM LinkAce, Maxcem Elite, PermaCem 2.0, and Zirconite) using different activation modes (self-cured, light-cured) and testing time (immediately, 24 h, thermocycling). Specimens were prepared for the compressive strength (Ø 4×6 mm) and diametral tensile strength and microhardness (Ø 6×3 mm) according to ISO standards. The strength after 24 h was higher than immediately after. In addition, G-CEM showed the highest values. In terms of the activation modes, Rely-X U200, PermaCem 2.0 had higher values in the light-curing than the self-curing. In conclusion, all cements demonstrated clinically available strength values and revealed differences in strength according to their composition, testing time and activation mode. Furthermore, correlation was found between the microhardness (degree of conversion) and mechanical strengths of the cements tested.
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  • Young-Jun YU, Hyo-Joung SEOL, Mi-Hyang CHO, Hyung-Il KIM, Yong Hoon KW ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 309-315
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to determine the hardening effect by controlling the cooling rate during the porcelain firing process and performing an additional post-firing heat treatment in a Pd-Ag-Sn alloy. The most effective cooling rate for alloy hardening was determined by cooling the specimens at various cooling rates after oxidation treatment. A subsequent porcelain firing simulation followed by cooling at the selected cooling rate was performed. A post-firing heat treatment was then done at 600°C in a porcelain furnace. The hardening mechanism was characterized by a hardness test, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Alloy softening occurred during the porcelain firing process followed by cooling at a controlled cooling rate. A post-firing heat treatment allowed apparent precipitation hardening. It is advisable to perform a postfiring heat treatment at 600°C in a porcelain furnace by annealing metal substructure after porcelain fusing.
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  • Shuya USHIMURA, Koichi NAKAMURA, Yasuhiro MATSUDA, Hajime MINAMIKAWA, ...
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 316-324
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we examined the effects of fissure sealants on inhibition of demineralization of primary teeth using an automatic pHcycling system. Three fissure sealants were used: Teethmate F-1 2.0 (TM), BeautiSealant (BS), and Fuji III LC (IIILC). Using an automatic pH-cycling system, the specimens (n=12) were repeatedly demineralized and remineralized. Specimens were subjected to transverse microradiography (TMR), and changes in integrated mineral loss (IML) and lesion depth (Ld), indicated as ΔIML and ΔLd, respectively, were calculated. In addition, fluoride levels in the enamel were assessed using microparticle-induced gammaray emission/particle-induced X-ray emission (n=3). IIILC showed the lowest values for ΔIML and ΔLd, followed by BS and then TM. The highest amount of fluorine in the enamel was observed for IIILC, followed by TM and BS. All fissure sealants inhibited demineralization in primary teeth.
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  • Takushi FUKUYAMA, Naho HAMANO, Satoshi INO
    2016 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 325-332
    Published: March 25, 2016
    Released: March 31, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain fusing to titanium and the effects of surface treatment on surface structure of titanium. In the shear bond strength test, titanium surface treatments were: conventional, silica-coating without bonding agent, and silica-coating with bonding agent. Titanium surface treatments for analysis by the atomic force microscope (AFM) were: polishing, alumina sandblasting and silica-coating. The shear bond strength value of silica-coating with bonding agent group showed significantly higher than that of other groups. In AFM observation results, regular foamy structure which is effective for wetting was only observed in silica-coating. Therefore, this structure might indicate silicon. Silica-coating renders forms a nanoscopic regular foamy structure, involved in superhydrophilicity, to titanium surface, which is markedly different from the irregular surface generated by alumina sandblasting.
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