This study investigated the degree of phase transformation, surface roughness, and bond strength of zirconia immersed for various times in a 40% hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. Non-etched sintered zirconia specimens were used as the control, while experimental groups were etched with a 40% HF solution for 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 min. In each of the control and experimental groups, five specimens for X-ray diffraction analysis, four for surface morphology and surface roughness analysis, and ten for bonding strength measurement were used. As a result, the surface roughness of zirconia increased as the application time increased during the 40% HF etching, but the bond strength between zirconia and resin cement did not increase proportionally. The phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic also gradually increased with application time.
Using finite-element analysis, we aimed to determine the center of resistance (CRes) of the maxillary canine for setting orthodontic forces. The inclination of the canine was measured by first loading from the mesial to the distal side of the mesial root surface, then the position and direction of the load that minimized the inclination were investigated. The CRes was defined as the set of midpoints of the minimum distances between two inclination lines. Twenty-one CRes values were calculated from a set of seven lines. These CRes data were then aggregated as a 95% confidence ellipsoid of width 0.170×0.016×0.009 mm with center points 4.269, 0.224, and 4.315 mm in the apical, mesial, and lingual directions from the origin, respectively. Further studies are required to effectively apply the CRes identified in this study to clinical applications.
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of surface pretreatment on the shear bond strength of resin luting cement to saliva-contaminated resin core foundation. The surface free energy (γS) of the adherent surfaces was examined. The two-way analysis of variance revealed that the surface pretreatment and storage conditions had a significant effect on the strength of the bond to resin core foundation. The γS values of the saliva-contaminated group were significantly lower than those of the other groups, and they tended to improve after surface pretreatment. The tendency of improvement in γS values differed depending on the type of pretreatment agents. Surface treatment with solutions containing functional monomers is effective in removing saliva contaminants from the resin core foundation surfaces and in creating an effective bonding surface for the resin luting cement.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential as cell sources for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study aimed to investigate whether iPS cells can be differentiated into MSCs using MSCGM, a commercially available MSC culture system. The cells were characterized by flow cytometry, immunostaining, and gene expression analyses. We also examined their potential to differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our results showed that iPS cells cultured in MSCGM (iPS-MSCGM) exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and expressed CD73 and CD90 genes, as well as positive markers for CD73, CD90, and CD105. Moreover, iPS-MSCGM cells demonstrated the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro. This study demonstrates a new and simple method for inducing the differentiation of iPS cells to MSCs using MSCGM.
Dental bases require low thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties, such as bonding with composite resins. This study aims to elucidate the physicochemical properties of premixed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for its suitability as a dental base and to explore the optimal adhesive strategy with composite resin. The thermal conductivity and compressive strength of this premixed MTA are 0.12 W/(m•K) and 93.76 MPa, respectively, Which are deemed adequate for its application as dental base. When bonded to composite resin, the use of 37% phosphoric acid etching before applying the Clearfil SE bond significantly reduced the bonding strength between composite resin and premixed MTA. This was because the compressive strength and Vickers hardness of premixed MTA decreased, and tricalcium silicate was dissolved from the surface during acid etching. Therefore, it is recommended to avoid using 37% phosphoric acid etching when bonding premixed MTA and composite resin as a dental base.