Tacrolimus (FK506), an immunosuppressive drug, is co-medicated with multiple drugs under clinical conditions. Tacrolimus is highly lipophilic and is excreted from the body after receiving extensive metabolism. Due to its narrow therapeutic window following organ transplantation, tacrolimus requires therapeutic drug monitoring by an enzyme immunoassay using the monoclonal antibody raised against tacrolimus. Therefore, metabolism studies including drug-drug interaction and metabolite identification studies are essential for the efficient development and clinically optimal usage of this drug. Tacrolimus was metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A subfamily. Metabolic drug-drug interaction studies were conducted to provide information regarding the optimal usage of tacrolimus, and its metabolism was inhibited by known CYP3A inhibitors such as ketoconazole, cyclosporine A, and nifedipine. Recent reports on clinical pharmacokinetics indicate that dose levels of tacrolimus need to be adjusted in transplant patients with CYP3A5 polymorphism.
The metabolism of CP-122,721, a neurokinin-1 antagonist, has been examined in vitro using hepatic microsomes from human and animal species, and recombinant heterologously expressed P450 enzymes. Metabolism occurs primarily via O-demethylation and N-dealkylation reactions. In human liver microsomes, O-demethylation was shown to be catalyzed by CYP2D6 with a low KM value. N-dealkyation was shown to be catalyzed primarily by CYP3A4. When scaled to in vivo, in vitro intrinsic clearance data yielded a reasonable correlation across species. CP-122,721 was shown to be metabolized by parallel pathways to 5-trifluoromethoxysalicylic acid, which had been observed as a major circulating metabolite in humans after oral administration of CP-122,721. The involvement of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and MAO-B was demonstrated in the pathways leading to 5-trifluoromethoxysalicylic acid. The O-desmethyl metabolite of CP-122,721 was shown to undergo a P450 catalyzed O-detrifluoromethylation reaction yielding a p-hydroquinone metabolite. The reaction was shown to be catalyzed by CYP3A4. Incubation under 18O2 yielded the hydroquinone containing O-18, consistent with this reaction occurring via an ispo substitution mechanism. Combined, these findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the metabolism of this new agent.
Prulifloxacin (PUFX) is a prodrug-type new quinolone antibiotic and immediately converted to an active metabolite, ulifloxacin (UFX). It has been previously reported that UFX is highly excreted into the bile, although the hepatic uptake process of UFX has not been investigated yet. In this study, we attempted to characterize the mechanism of hepatic uptake of UFX in rats. The hepatic uptake in vivo was evaluated by integration plot analysis. Furthermore, the uptake of [14C]-UFX by isolated rat hepatocytes was measured, and the effects of several transporter inhibitors and other quinolone antibiotics on the uptake were examined. The hepatic uptake clearance of UFX (1 mg/kg) was calculated to be 37.7 mL/min/kg, which was larger than those at doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg and was decreased by co-administration of cyclosporine A (CysA; 30 mg/kg). The uptake of [14C]-UFX by isolated rat hepatocytes linearly increased up to 1 min and also inhibited by CysA. Other quinolone antibiotics inhibited the [14C]-UFX uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas taurocholate and estrone-3-sulfate partially inhibited the [14C]-UFX uptake. These results demonstrate that a carrier-mediated transport system which is common to the quinolone antibiotics is involved in the uptake of UFX in the rat liver.
We investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of aripiprazole, a newly developed antipsychotic, and its active metabolite in healthy Japanese, and the influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the PK of aripiprazole. Following a single oral 6 mg dose, the mean Cmax, tmax, and t1/2, z (terminal phase half life) of aripiprazole were 31.0 ng/mL, 3.6 hr, and 61.0 hr, respectively. The t1/2, z in CYP2D6 IM subjects (75.2 hr) was significantly (p<0.01) longer than that in CYP2D6 EM subjects (45.8 hr), and the systemic clearance of IM subjects was approximately 60% that of EM subjects. The PK in one subject with the CYP2D6*41 homozygote was similar to that of IM subjects. In repeated oral administration, plasma concentrations of aripiprazole and active metabolite both reached a steady state by Day 14. The half-life of aripiprazole following repeated administration was similar to that following single administration, suggesting that pharmacokinetics was constant during 14-day administration. Our investigations revealed that there is no clear ethnic difference between Japanese and Western subjects in terms of mean plasma PK, while the CYP2D6*10 allele distinctive to Asian populations influences the PK of aripiprazole. Moreover, our observations suggest that the CYP2D6*41 allele significantly affects drug-metabolizing activity.
The interaction between cytochrome P450s (CYP, P450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) was studied by co-immunoprecipitation. P450 isoform-selective antibody was used as a probe to co-precipitate UGTs with the P450s from solubilized rat liver microsomes. Antibodies toward CYP3A2, CYP2B2, CYP2C11/13 and CYP1A2 co-precipitated UGTs with corresponding P450s. However, calnexin, a type-I membrane protein, in the endoplasmic reticulum was not co-precipitated by anti-P450 antibodies. UGT activity toward 4-methylumbelliferone was detected in all co-precipitates, suggesting that UGT in the complex with P450s is functionally active. Repeated washing of co-immunoprecipitates revealed differences among P450 isoforms with regard to the affinity for UGT. Larger amounts of UGT1A1 and UGT1A6, compared with UGT2B1, were washed out from UGTs-CYP2C11/13 co-precipitates, whereas UGT-CYP3A2 and UGT-CYP2Bs complexes were resistant to thorough washing. Thus, CYP2C11/13 could associate with UGTs, but the affinity is assumed to be weaker than that of CYP2B/3As. These results suggest that there is isoform specificity in the interaction between P450s and UGTs.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of human intestinal LS180 cells for studying the induction of CYP3A4 mRNA expression via vitamin D receptor (VDR). CYP3A4 mRNA expression in LS180 cells treated with 100 nM 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) for 6 and 24 h was approximately 80- and 500-fold higher than the control, respectively. A protein kinase (PK) inhibitor (staurosporine), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway inhibitor (curcumin), and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) attenuated 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression, suggesting that the PK-JNK pathway contributed to the rapid and drastic induction of CYP3A4 expression via VDR in LS180 cells. The ability of CYP3A4 mRNA induction in LS180 cells was highly dependent on the site and number of vitamin D3 and D2 hydroxylation. In addition, short-time (6 h) treatment of LS180 cells with cytotoxic secondary bile acids, lithocholic acid (LCA) and 3-keto-LCA also significantly induced the mRNA expression of CYP3A4. LS180 cells may be useful to quickly investigate the CYP3A4-inducing effect of drugs, xenobiotics, and/or endogenous substrates in the intestinal epithelia.
We previously investigated the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-carvedilol in 54 healthy Japanese subjects, and reported that the oral clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of both enantiomers in subjects with the CYP2D6*10 allele were significantly lower than those in subjects without the CYP2D6*10 allele. In the present study, we examined the genotype of UGT2B7 in these 54 subjects, and investigated the effect of UGT2B7*3 on the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-carvedilol. Forty-three subjects did not have the UGT2B7*3 allele, and 11 subjects had one UGT2B7*3 allele. CL/F and V/F values of R- and S-carvedilol in the subjects with one UGT2B7*3 allele were similar to those without the UGT2B7*3 allele, indicating that the UGT2B7*3 allele did not significantly affect the systemic clearance (CL) and bioavailability (F) of the two enantiomers.
The liver plays important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotecs. Hepatobiliary transporters contribute to hepatic uptake and efflux processes of xenobiotecs. Expressions of these transporters may be modulated under the condition of hepatic failure. Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats provide a pertinent model for basic and clinical studies on hepatitis. However, only a few reports describing the properties of hepatobiliary transporters in LEC rats have appeared in the literature. We investigated the expression levels of hepatobiliary transporters in LEC rats by real-time RT-PCR. We found that hepatic expressions of three sinusoidal organic anion transporters, Ntcp, Oatp1a1 and Oatp1a4, were decreased in LEC rats. However, no significant difference of the expressions of Mrp2 and Bsep, organic anion transporters located on canalicular membrane, were found between Wistar rats and LEC rats.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze phase-II biotransformation reaction of a variety of substances. Among the UGT1A isoforms, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 are predominantly expressed in the liver. Interindividual variability in expression of these isoforms would cause interindividual differences in drug response, toxicity and cancer susceptibility. In the present study, we investigated the interindividual variability in UGT1A mRNA expression and whether hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) and HNF4α were factors responsible for their variability in human livers. The amounts of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, HNF1α and HNF4α mRNA in 18 human livers were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The largest and smallest interindividual differences in expression levels were observed in UGT1A1 (8.6-fold) and UGT1A4 (2.5-fold) mRNA, respectively. The amounts of HNF1α and HNF4α mRNA were strongly correlated with the amount of UGT1A9 mRNA and moderately correlated with that of UGT1A6 mRNA, whereas no significant correlation was found with the amounts of UGT1A1, UGT1A3 and UGT1A4 mRNA. Our results suggest that HNF1α and HNF4α are the factors involved in the interindividual variability of UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 mRNA expression. Further studies of other transcription factors are needed to clarify the factor(s) determining the interindividual variations in UGT1A1, UGT1A3 and UGT1A4 mRNA expression.