In order to demonstrate the applicability and limitations in clinics of canine peripheral venous blood samples for blood gas analysis, they were compared with arterial blood samples from the same dogs. Sixty-one pairs of arterial and peripheral venous blood samples were simultaneously collected from 61 outpatients with good blood circulation, some of which were healthy dogs visiting for medical check, contraception, or castration. Peripheral venous blood samples were obtained while keeping the dogs lying on their side quietly, without stasis, and without any air bubbles entering the syringe. There was considerable correlation in pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3-]), and Base Excess (B.E.) values between peripheral venous and arterial blood samples (R2 = 0.56 - 0.79). However, peripheral venous blood samples in all cases showed significantly lower pH, significantly higher Pco2, significantly lower Po2, and significantly higher [HCO3-] (P<0.05[paired-t-test]). As to B.E. values, no significant difference was seen, so a peripheral venous B.E. could be used as a substitute for the arterial B.E. for clinical purposes. In other words, peripheral venous samples only provide a gross estimation of the results from a blood gas analysis except for B.E. values.
For basic studies on vaccination protocol in dogs, the levels of antibodies produced by canine parvovirus vaccien (CPV) and canine distemper vaccine (CDV) were measured in clinically healthy dogs that had received the mixed vaccine of these every year or every three years. In hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers of CPV, there was a statistically significant difference between the every-year group and the every-three-year group. Antibody titers of over 64, which are considered sufficiently protective against the infection, were detected in all 17 dogs injected every year, and in 14 of 18 dogs injected every three years. On the other hand, as to CDV neutralization antibody, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Antibody levels of over 64 were found in 16 out of 17 dogs vaccinated every year, and in 11 out of 18 dogs of the other group. The data suggested that annual vaccination with these mixed vaccines is necessary from a preventive medicine point of view.
A nine-year-old female Siberian Husky was presented with a three-month history of a mass at the neck. By clinical and blood chemistry tests, radiography and computed tomography, the mass was diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma, and the lesion was resected surgically. Five days after operation, serum thyroxine and calcium levels were found to have dropped. The dog was treated with thyroid hormone, calcium, and vitamin D, but the serum calcium concentrations did not become stable. Therefore administration of activated vitamin D3 was initiated, which enabled us to control serum calcium concentration. These results suggested that surgical removal of thyriod carcinoma inevitably led to loss of the parathyroid, and that activated vitamin D3 was effective as a supplement for hypocalcemia caused by loss of the parathyroid.
We encountered 4 rabbits with uterine hemorrhage and severe anemia (PCV≤19%). All rabbits showed depression with decrease or loss of appetite. Three rabbits presented severe hematuria, which was considered due to serious hemorrhage from the uterus, and received emergency ovariohysterectomy; they were found to suffer from uterine hyperplasia. The other rabbit without severe hemorrhage also received an emergency operation, and was found to have hydrometra accompanied by uterine torsion. Three rabbits survived, although one rabbit with hematuria died three days after operation. From these results, blood transfusion and oxygen supply was considered to be essential for effective treatment of anemic rabbits.
A three-year-old male Chihuahua was presented with difficulty in walking. The owner reported that the dog had shown progressive lameness for about one year. Radiographic examination revealed symmetrical erosive arthritis in the carpal and tarsal joints. Besides the joint lesions, mitral insufficiency (MI) was observed by two-dimensional echocardiography. Although there was no rheumatoid factor detected using denatured rabbit lgG, and an incision biopsy of the joint capsule did not provide sufficient histological evidence for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a tentative clinical diagnosis of RA associated with rheumatic mitral valvular disease was made on the basis of radiographic and echocardiographic findings. The dog was treated with prednisolone, azathioprine, ACE inhibitor, digoxin, and furosemide, but the signs of RA and MI worsened gradually, and it died of severe pulmonary edema six months after admission. Postmortem examination confirmed rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic heart disease in this case.