Quantitative measurement of the number of bacteria on the canine epidermis was done by an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) dependent chemiluminescence assay. ATP activity was measured using swab samples collected by wiping the skin of 27 dogs with pyoderma and of 15 dogs without skin problems. In the control group, the median ATP level was about half that of the dogs with pyoderma. The results indicated that a certain number of bacteria exist even on normal canine epidermis. Using the same swab samples, the numbers of bacterial colonies were counted on standard agar cultures. In the cases with pyoderma, very many colonies could be counted, whereas there were almost no colonies in the normal cases. The bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) was also evaluated using the swab samples, and ATP levels were measured quantitatively by the same method. Under ultraviolet illumination, TiO2 showed bactericidal activity against Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus that had originated from the canine skin with pyoderma, although it was almost ineffective against the viability of Malassezia or a canine malignant cell line, MCA-B1. Direct application of TiO2 to the canine skin with pyoderma was tested clinically, and succeeded in reducing ATP levels. These results indicate that TiO2 is potentially useful as an external medication for canine pyoderma.
This study investigated the changes of fecal flora and immune responses in dogs orally given 15 mg/kg/day chitosan-oligosaccharide. Two weeks after inoculation, the preparation had significantly increased number of fecal bifidobacteria and decreased number of fecal clostridia. Then the ratio of CD4-positive lymphocyte/CD8-positive lymphocyte was also significantly higher than those before inoculation. On other investigation, 6 weeks after inoculation, there were no the difference between inoculated groups and non-inoculated ones on serum and fecal IgA.levels There date suggested that chitosan-oligosaccharide is useful on dogs.
Because of its diversity of pathogenesis, feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is one of the most recurrent and difficult to treat diseases. In FLUTD, however, bacterial infection is not easily detected, since urinary samples are often contaminated, and the isolation of bacteria is difficult. In the present report, we adopted an enhanced culture method using blood culture bottles to isolate bacteria from the cat urine, and compared the detection rates and species of bacteria with an common isolation method. Although microorganisms were isolated in 75% of FLUTD cats by the enhanced culture method, only 26.3% were isolated by the common method. From 20 cats suffering from FLUTD, the same urine samples were tested for bacteria, and 80% turned out to be positive by the enhanced method, whereas only 20% showed positive by the common method. From these results, we recommend this enhanced culture method instead of the common method because the latter may possibly lead to an underestimation of the infection, resulting in underdiagnosis and undertreatment of FLUTDs.
We treated a six-year-old male Shetland sheep dog with head tilting and difficulty in standing. MRI examination revealed an intracranial mass at the right cerebellopontine angle. Surgical removal of the mass was attempted six days after the first diagnosis. The right transverse sinus was exposed by suboccipital craniectomy, and plugged with bone wax. The plugged sinus and the surrounding bone tissues were removed, and the cerebellum was widely exposed. After incision of the dura on the cerebellum, the mass could be partially observed because it was sticking out of the parenchyma of the cerebellum. The mass was removed as much as possible with gentle dissection of the parenchyma, but on post-operative MRI images part of the mass was found still remaining inside the skull. Histopathologically, the mass was diagnosed as a choroid plexus papilloma. Recovery from the surgery was remarkable, and the dog was able to walk unaided within a week. The dog was in a satisfactory condition for 22 post-operative months although its head tilting persisted. It died because of recurrence of the disease 25 months after the first diagnosis.
This is a rare case report of a dog with acquired myasthenia gravis which developed after hypothyroidism. A three-year-old golden retriever showed an abnormal manner of walking after physical exercise such as climbing up the stairs, and diagonal walking had started about 20 days before. Clinical signs and measurement of the concentration of thyroid hormone led to a diagnosis of myopathy caused by hypothyroidism. The dog was treated with thyroxine, and the clinical signs improved. But seven days later the dog had a relapse. Therefore, the dog was tested with neostigmine, a colinesterase inhibitor, and antibodies to cholinergic receptors were measured; this established a diagnosis of acquired myasthenia gravis following hypothyroidism.