The Usefulness of measuring serum ferritin concentrations as a tumor marker for canine multicentric lymphoma (ML) was evaluated. We found that serum ferritin concentrations of 10 dogs with ML measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were significantly higher than those of 18 healthy dogs (respectively, mean value ± standard deviation: 1448 ± 545 and 373 ± 122 ng/ml, p<0.0001), and the values changed remarkably as chemotherapy progressed. When complete remission had been achieved, mean serum ferritin concentrations dropped to the normal level, but tended to increase at relapse. As serum ferritin concentrations were also increased in other cases of malignant tumors or inflammations, the measurement of serum ferritin concentrations was not well suited for primary diagnosis of ML, but this measurement is useful for monitoring the process of chemotherapy for canine ML.
We investigated whether canine serum creatine kinase isoenzyme BB (CK-BB) could be measured by the reagents prepared for human creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), according to an immuno-inhibition method. First, canine serum from a healthy dog and a dog with cerebro-neural-disease was treated respectively with mouse anti-human creatine kinase isoenzyme MM (CK-MM) monoclonal antibody (M antibody) preparation, or with normal mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody preparation as a negative control. These treated canine serums and an untreated canine serum were analyzed by agarose electrophoresis/CK enzyme staining. In both dogs, CK-BB and CK-MM bands were detected in the negative controls and in the untreated serum; only the CK-BB band was seen in the M antibody-treated serums. Further, step-wise diluted samples from serum of a healthy dog and a CK-MB control solution were measured by the immuno-inhibition method, which resulted in good linearity of calibration curves. In addition, using the serums of 28 tested dogs including dogs with cerebro-neural disease, the results obtained by the immuno-inhibition method and electrophoresis were compared. There was a statistically significant correlation between the residual CK (which was left uninhibited by M antibodies) determined by the immuno-inhibition method and CK-BB activity determined by electrophoresis. There was also a significant correlation between the values of CK-MM activity determined by both methods. We concluded that measurement of canine serum CK-BB by the immuno-inhibition method developed for human clinics is useful in diagnostic screening for canine cerebro-neural diseases.
In an asymptomatic polycythemia dog brought to us, remarkable concentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle and flattened interventricular septum was found by general echocardiography. Cardiac diseases such as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) or pulmonary stenosis were suspected to have caused the polycythemia, but no color sign to indicate shunt diseases or valvular regurgitation was detected by color Doppler test. For further inspection, the dog was scanned by saline contrast echocardiography at Miyazaki University, and was diagnosed as suffering from right-to-left shunted PDA. This report is a good example of the usefulness of saline contrast echocardiography for easily demonstrating right-to-left shunted PDA.
Diseases due to aging are increasing, as dogs serving as companion animals become older. Among various canine cognitive dysfunction syndromes, abnormal behaviors such as midnight howling and wandering about the neighborhood are especially annoying to dog owners. Donepezil hydrochroride (Aricept®), which is usually used for human Alzheimer type dementia, was administered to twelve dogs which had been diagnosed as showing cognitive dysfunction syndromes according to the ‘canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome criteria’. In two weeks, the total score counted by the criteria was improved, and paticularly the score of ‘midnight howling’ showed a significant improvement.
This is a retrospective survey of the 3-to- 6- year treatment of 5 cats exhibiting compulsive behavior. They were outpatients of the Behavior Clinic of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Rakuno Gakuen University, which had a history of repetitive licking behavior for 4 months to 3 years before their first visit. All cats were indoor cats: 3 males and 2 females. After excluding the possibility of infectious dermatitis by external parasites, yeasts, or bacteria, four cats were diagnosed as suffering from psychogenic alopecia, and the other cat were suffering from fabric chewing/eating. All the cats were treated with a combination of behavior modification and medication. The pet owners were directed not to punish the cat, and to try being indifferent to the licking behavior. The owners were also advised to change the indoor environment to make the cat feel more comfortable. For medication, clomipramine was given 0.8-1.3 mg/kg once a day orally, which resulted in significant reduction of the repetitive behavior in 2 to 4 weeks in all cats. One cat became medicine-free. But in the other four, the licking behavior recurred during the weaning or discontinuance period, so medication was resumed, and again the behavior was reduced. Recent telephone interviews with the 4 pet owners revealed that each cat has been controlled very well for 3 to 6 years, and that clomipramine at 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg, was being given every day or every other day.