Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AG ), an acute phase protein, is attractive as a possible screening agent for blood tests to detect inflammation and neoplasia in cats. We newly developed a turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA) reagent for felineα1-AG, tested its reproducibility, dilution linearity and correlation with the values measured by single immunodiffusion (SRID) method, and obtained good results. We measured concentrations of blood α1-AG and serum amyloid A (SAA) from 238 cats visiting our veterinary teaching animal hospital, and found that α1-AG concentrations had increased in 125 cats, in which only 62 cats showed increased SAA concentrations. Discrepancy of theα1-AG values and SAA values suggested that a combined assay of the two might be helpful in determining the stage of disease and making a differential diagnosis of feline diseases. Many samples can be tested at the same time by the TIA method, so our new TIA regent might contribute to widespread use of α1-AG as a screening agent for blood tests in cats.
A mixed-breed cat was brought in because of chronic vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. As abdominal ultrasonography showed thickened gastric wall and arrested gastric peristalsis, whole layer core biopsy of the gastric wall was performed. Histopathologically, the disease was diagnosed as chronic gastritis due to parasite infection. On the basis of the morphologic features, the parasite was identified as Aonchotheca putorii. This agreed with the results of genetic analysis of DNA extracted from the eggs in the feces. B-cell monoclonal proliferation was also found by clonal analysis. The cat was given flubendazole, pyrantel, pamoate and ivermectin to get rid of the parasites. Prednisolone (2 mg/kg/day) was effective in treating chronic vomiting, which led us to strongly suspect that the disease was lymphocytic-plasmacytic gastritis caused by Aonchotheca putorii.
This case report is about a canine hemangiosarcoma in the descending colon that we could not diagnose before surgical treatment. A nine-year-old miniature dachshund was referred to our hospital with a 10-month history of bloody feces. Symptomatic therapy was unsuccessful, and no specific findings could be obtained by twice-repeated endoscopic examinations. On day 203, the dog showed anemia accompanying severe hemorrhage. In order to stop the bleeding, partial excision of the colon was urgently performed, and the removed mass was histopathologically diagnosed as a hemangiosarcoma. Postoperative chemotherapy with doxorubicin was effective, and the dog has been alive without recurrence for 337 days after surgery.
An 11-year-1-month old spayed Shih Tzu was diagnosed as suffering from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) by bone marrow aspiration biopsy and molecular analysis of the bone marrow using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disease went into clinical remission in response to chemotherapy with melphalan and prednisolone, and the medication was stopped on the 117 th day. The dog returned to our clinic because of lymphadenopathy and wheezing on the 382 nd day at the age of 12years and 1 month. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the superficial lymph nodes showed increase of lymphoblasts, and the molecular analysis of them revealed a cloned arrangement of IgH genes. Based on these findings, the disease was this time diagnosed as B-cell high-grade malignant multicentric lymphoma, namely, Richter’s syndrome, which occasionally occurs as a development of CLL. The base sequence of PCR products obtained at the onset of the CLL was different from that of PCR products from the lymphoma one year later.
Crusts were seen on the upper eyelid of a 14-year-old Yorkshire terrier, which had been treated with cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment and difluprednate emulsion eye drops for approximately 10 months due to serious keratitis sicca. Although oral administration of antibiotics and local treatment were applied, no improvement was observed. Subsequently, symptoms such as crust formation, erythema, and hair loss developed, spreading as far as the neck, anterior chest and forelegs. While no external parasites were detected by a skin curettage test, fungi were found in a culture test. Furthermore, skin biopsy revealed that fungal infection inside the hair follicles had reached as deep as the lower dermis, and the causal fungus appeared to be filamentous. Therefore, oral and external medicines including terbinafine hydrochloride were given for approximately one month, which resulted in the disappearance of the crust and erythema, along with significant growth of new hair approximately two months later. The skin condition is getting better, and the dog is also fine.
We performed continual oral administration of low dose chemotherapy (oLDC) using a combination of etoposide, chlorambucil, and piroxicam as adjuvant therapy for dogs with hemangiosarcoma (cases 1 and 2) or osteosarcoma (case 3). Survival time of the 3 patients was 249 days, 266 days and 259 days, respectively. Compared with conventional chemotherapy in which dogs were treated with the maximum tolerable dose, the patients’ survival time was the same or longer. There were no adverse events, and the quality of life was not impaired. Our oLDC protocol may be another possible choice of adjuvant chemotherapy for canine sarcomas, although we need to accumulate more cases to prove it.
A six-year-eight-month-old female Netherland dwarf rabbit was brought to us with the chief complaint of increased water intake, urine volume, and frequency of urination. Uterine disorder was suspected by X-ray radiography and abdominal ultrasonography. Ovariohysterectomy was carried out three days after the initial visit. Both right and left arms of the uterus were enlarged, and there were multiple masses in both arms of the uterus. Histopathologically, these were diagnosed as malignant Müllerian tumors. The rabbit died from severe acute dyspnea and anorexia, approximately six months after surgery. Although the incidence of uterine tumors is high in rabbits, few cases of malignant Müllerian tumors have been reported up to now.
The digital stethoscope has made it possible to record and visualize heart sounds. In this study, we examined whether there was a correlation between heart sounds and the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) using seven healthy dogs and twenty dogs with MR. The ratio of the first heart sound frequency to the second heart frequency (heart sound frequency ratio), and the diameter ratio of the left atrium to the aorta (LA/Ao) were calculated; early diastolic mitral flow (E) and early diastolic lateral mitral annulus velocity (E’) were measured simultaneously, and E/E’ was calculated. The heart sound frequency ratio in the MR dogs was significantly correlated with LA/Ao, E, and E/E’ (p<0.01, in each case), and the MR dogs tended to show elevation of the heart sound frequency ratio. Since the severity of MR can be evaluated more quantitatively by analyses of heart sounds with the digital stethoscope than by conventional phonocardiography, the digital stethoscope is considered to be especially useful in small animal clinics.