5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), one of the natural amino acids found in animals and plants, is metabolized into a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in vivo. In this study, ALA was administrated orally to tumor-bearing dogs, the relation between serum concentrations of PPIX and pathohistological findings was discussed, and the feasibility of judging whether or not the tumor was malignant was assessed. Using eight dogs with a malignant tumor and five dogs with a non-malignant tumor, ALA was administrated (30 mg/kg), the blood was sampled sequentially, and the concentrations of PPIX were measured. There were no significant differences in PPIX concentrations between the two groups. In the malignant group, however, PPIX concentrations 3 hrs after administration were significantly higher than those measured before administration (p<0.05) ; the sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively, when the PPIX concentrations were more than 5.5 pmol/l. From these results, the possibility of ALA being used as a tumor marker in small animal practice was suggested.
Seventy-three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 8 strains of P. putida, and 29 strains of other Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from dogs and cats that had visited our hospital, Miyamoto Animal Hospital from year 2006 to 2013. All strains of Pseudomonas spp. were susceptible to amikacin and carbapenems. More specifically, 14 %, 14%, 7%, and 8% of P. aeruginosa were resistant to ofloxacin (OFLX), levofloxacin (LVFX), ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin, respectively ; 25% of P. putida and 3% of other Pseudomonas spp. were resistant to OFLX and LVFX, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. showed susceptibility to such antimicrobial drugs as fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and fosfomycin, and these drugs were administered for the treatment of Pseudomonas infections. Ninety-five % of infections caused by P. aeruginosa, 75% of infections by P. pitida, and all cases infected by other Pseudomonas spp. were cured after administration of suitable antimicrobial drugs.
A nine-year-old dog with a three-month history of frequent mucosal, bloody stool and vomiting was referred to our hospital. An abdominal mass was palpated. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed the mass in the descending colon. It was removed surgically, and was diagnosed as a high-grade malignant lymphoma histopathologically. The dog was treated according to the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW25) protocol. A follow-up CT scan showed no relapse on day 449, and the dog has been in good condition more than two years after surgery. There are many reports of dogs with a colorectal lymphoma surviving for a long period of time, and this is another example of such long survival.KEY WORDS : alimentary lymphoma, colon, dog(J Anim Clin Med. 23(4)162-165, 2014)
A 20-month-old female toy poodle was referred to the Azabu University Veterinary Teaching Hospital because of asymptomatic and persistent hypofibrinogenemia. No abnormalities were found by clinical examination, diagnostic imaging tests, or clinicopathological examination, although the results of coagulation tests were slightly abnormal. Therefore, both accelerated consumption of fibrinogen and impaired synthesis of fibrinogen due to liver failure could be excluded. As low values of plasma fibrinogen had often been detected since the dog was younger, congenital hypofibrinogenemia or congenital dysfibrinogenemia were suspected. In order to differentiate the two fibrinogen-related disorders, plasma fibrinogen antigens were measured, and they showed low levels of plasma fibrinogen antigen. Therefore, the dog was diagnosed as suffering from hypofibrinogenemia.
A 10-month-old spayed papillon dog showed tibial tuberosity avulsion, which had been caused by previous surgical repair of medial patellar luxation in the left hind limb, and subsequent proximal displacement of the patella, accompanying contracture of the quadriceps muscles. To restore the function of the left stifle, we performed femoral quadriceps transposition. Since medial patellar luxation classified as grade Ⅳ was seen in the right hind limb, femoral trochlear wedge recession sulcoplasty, tibial tuberosity transposition, and capsular/retinacular release, and imbrication were performed. Three months after surgery, the gait was almost normal, and the short-time surgical outcome was satisfactory. This case indicates that femoral quadriceps transposition may be useful for surgical treatment of proximal displacement of the patella accompanying contracture of the quadriceps muscles.
In a cat of 12 years old, monoclonal gammopathy of γ-globulin was observed in the serum protein fraction, and Bence Jones protein was suspected in the urine protein fraction. There were punched-out images in the long bones on X-rays, and neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells was ascertained in bone marrow biopsy. Therefore, the disease was diagnosed as multiple myeloma. Chemotherapy was initiated with prednisolone and melphalan, but the cat devepoled proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolimia, and edema. Symptoms of nephritic syndrome also occurred, indicating a poor prognosis. The cat died on day 20.
A cat with vomiting, and anorexia was found to suffer from severe uremia by blood tests. Additionally, urine tests, abdominal radiography, and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. A reduced shadow of the left kidney and a swollen shadow of the right kidney were seen on radiographs. Ultrasonography showed contraction of the left kidney and expansion of the renal pelvis and ureter obstruction by ureter stones in the right kidney. From these findings, we diagnosed the disease as acute renal failure due to a sudden functional drop of the right kidney. To preserve the right kidney function, and reduce renal pelvis pressure, we performed bladder -kidney bypass surgery using a subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) system immediately after the diagnosis. Consequently the uremia improved rapidly in blood tests, and the cat had a good postoperative course. About one year has passed after surgery, and the cat is in a follow-up period under careful observation.