Anemia is a common complication in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but factors of renal anemia are various. We measured packed cell volume (PCV), creatinine, erythropoietin (EPO), serum ion, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) in 65 anemic cats with CKD and 10 clinically normal cats to investigate iron metabolic abnormalities in CDK cats. Both serum iron and TIBC were significantly less in the CKD cats than in the control cats, although there was no difference of EPO between the two groups. According to general knowledge, low serum iron and TIBC are consistent with anemia of chronic disease (ACD). In addition, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between EPO and TIBC in the CKD group in this study. These results suggest that ACD plays a primary role in renal anemia of CKD cats, and that EPO secretion depends on the degrees of concurrent illnesses rather than the severity of anemia or stages of CKD.
In order to obtain non-contaminated urine from dogs or cats, we devised a new technique, lateral cysitocentesis in a standing position, which is safer and more beneficial than a conventional method, midline cystocentesis in a dorsal recumbent position. Conventional cystocentesis in a dorsal recumbent position is considered to be risky, because the bladder tends to hang down directly onto the aorta and caudal vena cava, and the aorta might be penetrated accidentally during an operation. For fear of such fatal accidents, cystocentesis was often avoided as a routine urinalysis. By our new method, we could perform urinalysis of 140 dogs and 75 cats safely.
Four miniature dachshunds with complaints of hematochezia, tenesmus, and mucoid feces were given an endoscopic examination, and were diagnosed as having rectal inflammatory polyps by endoscopic biopsy. One case responded well to medical treatment with prednisolone and cyclosporine. In the other three cases, rectal mucosal pull-through surgery was performed, because these cases had shown little improvement by medical treatment. After the surgical operation, clinical conditions of the three were ameliorated markedly without severe complications.
A 9-year-old male miniature dachshund was brought to our facility with frequent vomiting after ingestion of grape peel. Blood tests showed elevated levels of BUN (104.5 mg/dl), Cre (6.9 mg/dl), Ca (13.1 mg/dl), P (17.9 mg/dl) and K (5.15 mmol/l). We concluded that ingestion of grape skins had caused acute renal failure, and initiated medical treatment in our hospital. On day 1, transient oliguria was seen, but this was improved by diuretic drugs. Although hematic data showed gradual improvement, the condition of the dog worsened, and platelet count had dropped on day 7 ; we suspected that disseminated intravascular coagulation had developed. The dog died on day 10.
A nine-year-old male Shih Tzu dog was brought to us with a two-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Hematological tests showed neutorophilia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Biochemical profile showed elevated liver enzyme, increased lipase and Spec-cPL concentrarions, and hyperglycemia. Bone marrow evaluation revealed myeloid hyperplasia, erythroid hyperplasia, and severe megakaryocytic hypoplasia. Based on these findings, the dog was diagnosed as suffering from amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia along with pancreatitis. Supportive care and immunosuppressive treatment with vincristine and human immunoglobulin were initiated. After pancreatisis improved, prednisolone was administered. After that, platelet count increased quickly, and was in remission on day 15. The dosage of prednisolone was tapered, and discontinued on day 179. The dog has been in good condition for the past 15 months.