A total of 122 raptors bred as pet birds were sampled from 2007 to 2008 for the detection Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and cultured. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any samples. A total of 98 E. coli strains were isolated from 122 fecal samples. A total of 18 of 98 E. coli isolates belonging to the following O serogroups were identified: O8 (9 strains), O1 (3 strains), O168 (3 strains), O86 (2 strains) and O128 (1 strain). In the order Accipitriformes, 37 (59.7%) of 62 strains were identified as verotoxin producing E. coli, and 1 strain (1.6%) was identified as heat-labile enterotoxin producing E. coli. On the other hand, in the order Strigiformes, 17 (47.2%) of 36 strains were identified as verotoxin producing E. coli, and 7 strains (19.4%) were identified as heat-labile enterotoxin producing E. coli. A comparison of resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from Accipitriformes and Strigiformes revealed that 33 (53.2%) of 62 isolates from Accipitriformes and 5 (13.9%) of 36 isolates from Strigiformes were antimicrobial sensitive (P<0.05).
The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of walking pressure measurements in veterinary nursing to evaluate postoperative functional recovery after surgery for medial patellar luxation. We measured the load applied to the limb during walking in 3 postoperative dogs and 3 healthy dogs. In addition, we investigated the rate of change of the load during the post-operative recovery period until the time of discharge. We monitored the individual features of the recovery and found differences related to the surgical site (either both sides or one side) and age at the time of the surgery. Measurement of the load during walking can be performed relatively easily to objectively monitor the recovery process and to evaluate the outcome of surgery.
Twenty dogs diagnosed with acute pancreatitis on the basis of clinical signs and increased serum pancreatic specific lipase (Spec cPL) 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Canine lipase activity (v-LIP) was useful for bedside evaluation of acute pancreatitis because of a significant correlation between Spec cPL and v-LIP. Moreover, v-LIP activity tended decrease over a long period in dogs with concurrent disease than in those with acute pancreatitis alone. With regard to C-reactive protein (CRP) level, even if the concentration was low at the time of first medical examination, the level increased on the next day in some dogs. Therefore, caution should be exercised when evaluating pathological conditions using CRP.KEY WORDS : rabbit, calcium oxalate stone, ureteral lithotomy
A 7-year-old male rabbit showed a hunched posture and abdominal pain with the main complaint of loss of appetite and vigor. In radiographic examinations, stones were detected in the right and left renal pelvises. Medical treatment was initiated with analgesics and subcutaneous infusion. On day 8, stones in the right renal pelvis were found to have migrated into the ureter, causing ureteral obstruction. As abdominal ultrasound examination revealed distention of the right renal pelvis and ureter, right ureterotomy was performed to remove the stones, which were found to be mainly calcium oxalate. The postoperative course was uneventful; however, the patient returned to our hospital on day 21 because of increased squatting posture and urinary frequency. Distention of the left renal pelvis and ureter was noted with migration of stones from the left renal pelvis into the ureter. Left ureterotomy was performed for stone removal, and postoperative recovery was uneventful. Seven weeks after the second surgery, the rabbit exhibited loss of vigor and pollakiurea, and newly formed stones were detected on radiographs. The rabbit was treated with infusion and analgesics if needed, and its daily activity was almost the same as before. One year and 10 months after the second surgery, growth of stones in the right and left renal pelvises and elevation of the values of BUN and creatinine were seen, and the patient died of aggravated renal dysfunction 2 years and 4 months after the second surgery.
Two dogs showing severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding tendency were diagnosed as suffering from immuno-mediated thrombocytopenia in clinical examinations including bone marrow aspiration biopsy. In both cases, immunosuppressive therapy was performed with prednisolone and cyclosporine. In Case 1, relapse occurred soon after maintenance therapy with cyclosporine was initiated during remission. When prednisolone treatment was resumed, remission was again obtained, and azathioprine was used instead of cyclosporine. However, relapse occurred again while reducing the amount of prednisolone. Therefore, instead of azathioprine, leflunomide was chosen, which led to successful withdrawal of prednisolone and continued remission by the single use of leflunomide. In Case 2, during maintenance therapy with cyclosporine after remission, gingival hyperplasma developed. Leflunomide was given instead of cyclosporine, the symptoms disappeared, and remission has been maintained by the single use of leflunomide.
In this report, pressure at body contacts with the operating table was measured and analyzed in cats undergoing surgery under general anesthesia in a supine position. Such body pressure has been analyzed in dogs, but not yet in cats. The body pressure was high in the occipital region, the scapular region, and the iliac region, and the pressure exerted by the head depended on the angle of the upper jaw to the operating table. In order to reduce body pressure, a urethane foam mat with low rebound was used, which was fairly effective. But in cats weighing less than 4 kilograms, this kind of mat was ineffective at some places on the body. Further tests for the relation between body weight and pressure reduction are considered to be necessary.