Clinical assessment of pharyngeal airway has not prevailed in dogs. Based on the findings that the craniocervical X-rays and fluoroscopy in 89 consecutive non-brachycephalic dogs with upper airway signs indicated caudal displacement of the larynx, excessive dorsal pharyngeal wall, descent of the tongue, and soft palate unified with the dorsal pharyngeal wall, we defined pharyngeal airway obstruction syndrome (PAOS) and reviewed clinical features, treatment, and outcome of PAOS. In this study, the median age of affected dogs was 9 years. Pomeranian (odds ratio, OR=18.7) and Yorkshire Terrier (OR=3.7) were significantly predisposed. The most common symptom was chronic cough (n=32), the representative signs were obese (BCS>4/5, n=58), snoring(n=53), tachypnea(n=52), sleep disordered breathing(n=40), persistent productive cough(n=39), dry cough(n=38). The most frequent final diagnosis was tracheal collapse (n=29), while 22 percent of these 89 dogs had no conventional diagnosis. In 46 dogs, body weight loss was instructed, and any upper airway signs significantly improved until 3 months in 86.7% of these dogs. Some severely affected dogs had persistent sleep apnea (n=11) or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema(n=9) on admission. In the latter, the 60-day survival rate was 66.7 %. PAOS is distinguished by individual pharyngeal structure, despite of breeds or the skull shapes. Clinician must identify PAOS and instruct body weight loss to pet owners as early as possible if the affected dog is obese.
A 12-year-old dog with anorexia, lethargy, fever, and cough was referred to our hospital. Blood tests revealed a low platelet count and high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). The detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum) DNA in the blood, the positive result for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, and the presence of morulae within granulocytes in the peripheral blood confirmed the diagnosis of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis. Phylogenetic analysis of gltA and groEL gene revealed that the strain detected in this study and A. phagocytophilum previously reported in Japan were closely related. However this is the first report of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis in western Japan. A. phagocytophilum infection may also occur in non-epidemic regions of Japan.
The objective of this study was to assess correlation between the changes in the central venous pressure (CVP) and hematocrit (HCT) to estimate blood loss in dogs during hepatectomy. Medical records of dogs who underwent elective hepatectomy to treat hepatic mass lesion at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University from August 2017 to July 2018, were retrospectively investigated. Data of five client-owned dogs (4 females and 1 male) aged 10-13 years (average age, 12.2 years) were included in this study. The parameters recorded during hepatectomy included esophageal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, end-tidal isoflurane, volume of lactated Ringer's solution, and CVP. Maximum, minimum, and mean values of CVP were investigated. Preoperative and postoperative HCT levels were 34.0 ± 2.4% and 20.0 ± 3.1%, respectively, suggesting that the HCT levels significantly reduced after hepatectomy (p=0.0033). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between maximum changes in CVP and HCT levels was 0.8792 (p=0.0495). No significant correlations were identified among other variables. In this study, CVP influenced changes in HCT levels associated with bleeding in dogs undergoing hepatectomy.
Oral low-dose chemotherapy using a combination of etoposide, Chlorambucil, filocoxib, and piroxicam was used to perform adjuvant chemotherapy on four dogs with grade 2 or 3 splenic hemangiosarcoma. The survival times of the four cases were 307, 248, 285, and 309 days, respectively. This study highlights an alternative adjuvant chemotherapeutic modality for canine splenic hemangiosarcoma. However, further investigations in a larger number of cases are desired.