Medical records of 75 dogs diagnosed as laryngopharyngeal or esophageal foreign bodies were reviewed from the viewpoints of dog breeds, sex, body weight, age, diagnostic methods, foreign material, location of obstructions, treatments and complications. As previously reported, foreign bodies in the pharynx, larynx or esophagus are most frequently seen among small dog breeds and properly treated using endoscopes. However, we observed that vegetables and fruits are more common and the rate of severe complications is lower, contrary to the previous reports.
A 7-year old mixed breed cat, spayed female, came to our hospital with dyspnea. When the owner came home, the cat was found to show dyspnea and salivation. The owner had sprayed waterproofing spray inside the house before going out. An increased impermeability in the lung field and bronchoalveolar pattern was observed with thoracic X-ray examination. Based on the complaint, symptoms and image findings, acute lung injury due to waterproofing spray vapor inhalation was diagnosed, and hospitalized treatment was initiated. An intravenous drip phleboclysis was performed in an oxygenated room, and 5 mg/kg enrofloxacin SID, 20 mg/kg ampicillin BID, 1 mg/kg maropitant SID, and 1 mg/kg prednisolone SID were administered. On day 4 of hospitalization, salivation was ceased, and appetite was recovered. On day 17, image findings were also improved. Not only direct inhalation of the waterproofing spray, but also pyrolysis products of the waterproof spray and subsequent deterioration may be involved in cause of symptoms of this case. When waterproofing spray is used, it should be payed attention not only to avoiding direct inhalation of the spray vapors but also to the spraying environment.
Hypoalbuminemia is commonly observed in canine inflammatory bowel disease with protein-losing enteropathy. Tissue perfusion injury, increasing vascular permeability, hypotension and dysfunction of blood coagulation system by losing blood clotting factors can occur following the hypoalbuminemia. Histopathological examination of intestinal mucosa by endoscopic sampling is useful as a diagnostic method of inflammatory bowel disease. In the other hand, general anesthesia is required for endoscopy. In this study, we investigated whether the severity of hypoalbuminemia affected heart rate and blood pressure in anesthetized dogs for gastrointestinal endscopy. The medical records of the Animal Medical Center, Nihon University, were investigated retrospectively from June, 2014 to Septenber, 2016 in dogs for gastrointestinal endoscopy examination. Dogs were able to assign to three groups: S-Alb group defined as serum albumin < 2.0 g/dl, M-Alb group defined as serum albumin 2.0 to 2.5 g/dl, and N-Alb group defined as > 2.5 g/dl. Following pre-medication with atropine, midazolam and butorphanol, anesthesia was induced by slowly titrating propofol until obtain the desired effect. After endotracheal intubation, anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Despite the significant difference among 3 groups in the colloid osmotic pressure calculated from serum total protein concentration, there were no significant difference in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, the total dose of propofol, end tidal isoflurane concentration, and dopamine and fluid infusion rate required for maintaining circulation. In this anesthetic technique, it was suggested that heart rate and mean blood pressure did not differed clinically in the range of serum albumin from 1.0 to 3.2 g/dl in dogs during anesthesia for gastrointestinal endoscopy but dopamine infusion was useful for dogs with hypoalbuminemia.