Four hundred feline leukemia virus (FeL V) positive cats with non-neoplastic or neoplastic diseases were studied pathophysiologically. 271 of the cats were male (including 52 castrated) and 129 were femal (including 39 spayed), and 69% were less than 4 years old. 85 (21.3%) had neoplastic diseases such as lymphoma, acute leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The other 315 cats (79.7%) had non-neoplastic diseases such as neutropenia, hemobartonellosis, abscess and feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The diseases found in one-half of all 400 cats were associated with immune suppression. Peripheral blood tests showed anemia in 267 cats (68.8%), neutropenia in 70 cats (30.0%), neutrophilia in 64 cats (27.5%), lymphocytosis in 64 cats (27.5%), lymphocytopenia in 106 cats (44.9%), thrombocytosis in 35 cats (14.7%), and thrombocytopenia in 52 cats (21.8%). From the results, male cats are more likely to develop FeLV infectious diseases than females, and castrated animals are less likely to develop FeLV infection diseases since they tend to stay indoors. Bite wounds due to fights might increase the chances of contracting this kind of infection, because leukemia viruses are transported through blood.
Two cats suffering from difficulty in walking due to diabetes mellitus were treated successfully with insulin therapy. Case one was a nine-year-old Japanese mixed-breed castrated cat which was brought in with urinary problems and difficulty in walking. Insulin injection was initiated, as the urine glucose measured before treatment was strongly positive and the blood glucose was 423mg/dl. In the course of therapy, however, all four limbs suddenly became paralyzed, and the cat became unable to walk. On the basis of electromyelograms, measurement of nerve conduction velocity, and histopathologic tests, the condition was diagnosed as polyneuropathy caused by diabetes mellitus. Careful six-month control of blood glucose level finally freed the patient from insulin therapy. In addition, nerve conduction velocity became almost normal nine months after the outset of the treatment. Case two was a 14-year-old mixed-breed diabetic castrated cat, which had lost its walking ability gradually over 22 months. With insulin therapy, the blood glucose level of case two was kept within a normal range for five months, until neurological signs of the rear limbs disappeared.
A ten-year-old female Yorkshire terrier which developed diabetes mellitus during metestrus underwent ovariohysterectomy on the 31st day because of pyometra. Afterwards, the diabetes was controlled mainly by insulin therapy until a tumor about 45×20mm in size was found on the 181st day around the right adrenal gland, with deterioratio of the general condition of the dog. The tumor was examined for relation to the diabetes mellitus, but there was none. The values of serum cortisol of the patient were not higt. In addition, neither clinical symptoms or the other blood chemistry tests showed any sign of hyperadrenocorticism. The tumor, however, was confirmed as an adrenal cortex cancer by pathological examinations after death, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal cortex was considerd as showing a conpensatory change. From these facts, this adrenal cortex cancer was considered to be non-functional. This was one reason for the difficulty in indentifying its origin.
In this report, a cat parasitized by Dirofilaria immitis was examined pathologically. The male mixed-breed cat, which seemingly had been hit by a car, died in spite of our first-aid treatment. Necropsy revealed that the direct cause of its death was probably contusion and breeding in the brain, since hemorrhage was present at basilar region of the brain. In the lungs, serious and extensive emphysema of the arteries was seen along with congestion. Intrapulmonary arterial embolism and periarteritis was also observed. However, there must have been chronic hyposthenia, due to one male 12 cm long Dirofilaria immitis in the right ventricle, and six Ascaris lumbricoades in the jejunum and ileum. In transmission electron microscopy, the pulmonary arteries were seen to have fibrous intimal hyperplasia with infiltration of eosinophils, giant cells, mast cells, and mononuclear inflammatory cells. Most mast cells in the intima of the pulmonary arteries had cytoplasmic granules of various sizes and/or electron density, and were ultrastructurally classified as particulate. The granules had a fine filamentous structure, occasionally fused or severely disorganized, of the labyrinthine type. This finding suggested rapid release of certain chemical mediators from the cytoplasm of mast cells, possibly triggered by allergic reaction to the Dirofilaria immitis.