In this study, mechanical vibration generating cracked-eggs was measured and analyzed using commercial egg sorter. Vibration measurement of egg sorter was carried out by a FFT Analyzer ZonicBook/618E and acceleration sensors on the transfer system and packing system. The vibration measured on the transfer system ranged from 202.03 to 396.87 G (where, G=9.81 m/s2), and the magnitude of the impulse that eggs received from the transfer system was about 20.60~39.24 N in these tests. In the packing system, the vibrations were 7.98~9.05G, and the quantities of impulse imparted on the eggs were about 3.92∼4.91N.
The process of stripping for removing rice grain was attained before the modern era in Japan and led to the development of the head-feeding type thresher. The head-feeding type thresher incorporates ‘the potential of the stripping principle’— high performance of removing rice grain with low requirement of energy. On the other hand, the stripping action has been generally recognised as the reaping of standing crops. This paper reviews the history of the action and process of stripping with a view of defining the fundamental consequences for further development of existing discussions on removing grains.
The demand for mechanization and automation in the agricultural field is a response to the demand for high quality products and sophisticated production techniques in countries with high labor costs. Taiwan started its ten-year mechanization program in 1960 through the introduction of power tillers. Additional measures such as the introduction of field and post-harvest rice drying mechanization, agricultural automation, and precision agriculture were promoted during the past thirty years. Over this period, Taiwan has become a highly mechanized country in rice production. The local small and medium-sized farm machinery industrial sector is characterized by low volume sales of a great variety of farm machinery. Although government policies help to fulfill domestic demand for farm machinery, the local agricultural machinery industry is at a disadvantage as it faces global competition in the new millennium.
Korea has achieved successful farm mechanization over the past 45 years. Mechanization for rice production is almost complete and that for horticulture and livestock is well under way. In this regard, the Korean government has instituted a number of policies to promote farm mechanization, including distribution, production, marketing, inspection, after-sales service, and the training of end users of agricultural machines. This paper reviews the progress of Korea's farm mechanization and the policy directions of the Korean government with respect to the promotion of farm mechanization. Some problems in the implementation of the policies are discussed. The successful actualization of the Korean farm mechanization represents a good benchmark for policy makers in developing countries, particularly for those who preside over rice growing regions in Asia. A country's farm mechanization policies affect the farmers, machine manufacturers, and agricultural productions of the country; thus, such policies should be implemented on the basis of the country's local conditions and rural economy. To achieve successful farm mechanization, the rural economy must remain economically viable, and there must be a reduction in rural labor force. Korea's success has been due to its industrial development.
A distinctive feature analysis of custom hire systems is made in an attempt to clarify the process of technology acceptance in relation to demographic changes in mobility at the frontier in the western part of Thailand. Field surveys reveal that the mental component to agricultural mechanization varies from one community to another. There was a comprehensive settlement scheme at the study site around 40 years ago. Farmers suggested that a custom hire service would constitute a reliable tool for implementing specific farming practices and obtaining a reasonable income. To cope with the difficulties involved in securing a cheaper workforce and the necessary operating capital convinced the farmers that a professional custom hire business would be useful for achieving sustainable agriculture.
In Thailand, to avoid the degradation of fresh paddy after harvesting, we investigated a pre-drying storage treatment consisting of uniform mixing of an absorbent such as dried rice husk, dried paddy, or tapioca pearl with fresh paddy. A mixing, storage, and drying model was developed to calculate the mixture ratio and changes in moisture content (MC). The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the mixture of fresh paddy and absorbent (dried paddy or tapioca pearl) was almost equal to the average MC of the weight ratio of the mixture. The weight ratio of the mixture was calculated for an EMC below 17%, which is the maximum moisture content necessary to conserve grain quality for short-term storage. Mixing dried rice husk with fresh paddy is a simple and effective pre-drying method for maintaining rice quality. While tapioca pearl served as an effective absorbent, it is necessary to improve its firmness to ensure its reusability.
This paper reviews the progress and present status of biomass energy in Japan and introduces the newest research concerning bio-fuels. In addition, the reduction of carbon dioxide is briefly discussed. Japan is obliged under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to about 14 percent below 1990 levels by 2012. The Japanese gpverment’s “Biomass Nippon” (“Nippon” means Japan in Japanese) was established in 2002. The target of this plan is to achieve a sustainable society through general biomass utilization based on market-based efforts. In August 2003, the law for “a warranty on volatile oil” was enacted in Japan. This law permits petrol to contain up to 3% ethanol and in March 2007, B5 (5% BDF blends in diesel oil) was permitted by the revision of this law. Because of the limited experience with ethanol blends and BDF blends in our country, research and experiment under various conditions will be necessary for the future acceptance of these fuels. It will also be necessary to provide information to fuel distributors and retainers, who have not had any experience with these blends.
The publisher of "Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food (EAEF)" will change from J-Stage (JST) to Elsevier Ltd. on January 1, 2014. New issues after Vol.7 will be browsed on ScienceDirect, whereas Vol.1-6 can be still browsed on J-Stage.
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