The flood caused by typhoon Morakot resulted in mass fatalities, prompting demands for improving coping capacities to extreme climate events. The capacity improvement must involve determining and relieving socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Along with resource allocation and pre-evacuation, transportation systems play a crucial role during the disaster response and recovery. Highway bridges significantly impact the network accessibility. However, previous literature focused on the physical vulnerability of bridges from the engineering or disaster-loss assessment perspective. This study thus examines the disaster risk of bridge failure from a vulnerability perspective. 11 vulnerable factors are generated by impact chain and evaluated via geographic information system. The results reveal that accessibility and redundancy remarkably affect vulnerability and risk. The risk maps help decision-maker understand the vulnerability and adopt appropriate strategies for reducing disaster risk.
In the last few years,International research group,IRG SCAFT has developed a superstatistical based integration framework in which the principle of Ever-Advancing Civilization mediates the synchronized and cooperative strategies of globally integrated transport and urban systems through the introduction of an optimally integrated network of Humanitarian Hubs and cluster merging process of local populations.As a part of ongoing IRG research,we seek to answer two further formidable challenges encountered as we continue to develop the common integrated framework of transport and urban systems, namely the existence and nature of eigenvalues required for dimensional calculations of Humanitarian Hubs,and secondly,the social capital exergy based core logistic activities required for cluster merging processes. Finally,we suggest the spiral growth pattern for the cluster merging process and Humanitarian Hub integration process as another manifestation of First Passage Time Anisotropy.
This paper analyzes patient choice of health service facilities, using empirical data collected through a survey conducted in rural areas of Sri Lanka. The hospital choice model takes into account disease types and transportation modal choice. The results show that the accessibility of patients to the medical care services and the level-of-service of hospitals impact the choice of hospital significantly. The results also unveil the relationships between living conditions and diseases, for example, that the unavailability of water increase the possibility that long-term critical diseases will occur. Additionally, they show that the value of travel time in accessing health services is much higher than the average wage level. Finally the paper presents the policy implications that the accessibility as well as the service quality of hospitals should be highlighted more in medical service planning in addition to the free medical service.
In the wake of the devastating 2004 tsunami, a number of researches shifted their focus to disaster prevention, management and alleviation strategies. Most studies developed their plans through reviewing and modeling the characteristics of the great tidal wave. This study from Phuket Island, nonetheless, investigated the other side of the subject from the evacuees perspective. Route choice decision and its governing factors were determined. Their relationship to socioeconomic characteristics of local residents and foreign tourists were analyzed and quantified using a three-way contingency table technique. The study found an astonishing fact of an insignificant role of evacuation signage in guiding the evacuation route, as compared to individual instinct and the crowd reaction. The conclusion of the study would be the first step to help understand the crowd behavior and to help establish an effective evacuation measures under this specific emergency situation.
This paper proposes an integrated scenario tree model that incorporates recurrent congestion conditions and sporadic disasters into a stochastic degradable road network design problem (SDNDP). The traffic pattern of the stochastic degradable network (SDN) under the recurrent congestion condition is evaluated by probit-based stochastic user equilibrium (called SDN-SUE), whereas the system optimum is used to assess the traffic pattern of the SDN under the sporadic disaster (called SDN-SO). The proposed model determines optimal link capacity expansions that minimize the sum of the total network travel time costs of all recurrent congestion conditions plus the total investment cost subject to the desired total network travel time constraint for evacuation purpose and the SDN-SUE and SDN-SO conditions. A solution algorithm is also developed for solving the SDNDP. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the potential pitfall in considering the network improvement policies separately and to show the benefit from the integrated model.
The Trade and Transport Information Database for the Lower Mekong Riparian Countries is a goe-spatial database of which main components are 1) general information of border cities in the lower Mekong riparian countries 2) cross-border trade information including border checkpoints and boundary 3) cross-border trade and transportation statistics 4) the transport network linking the riparian countries. The Google Earth program is applied for the display of the database on the couputer screen.
The result database can be visualized in both graphic and descriptive form. Hence it is quite an effcient tool for planning and analysis of trade and transportation. Moreover, the database will serve as basis for further development to more extensively cover the cross-border trade and transport between Thailand and all her nieghboring countries.
Rubble disposal is one of the most important issues for urban restoration after an earthquake disaster. A detailed management plan is required to deal with the rubble generated, especially by a large-scale earthquake, in order to avoid undesirable effects such as traffic congestion and safety issues. This paper proposes an IT based logistics system to manage the disposal of rubble. A specific management plan is suggested for the area of Koto-Delta region, Tokyo. The plan includes an operation procedure, specifying locations of stock yards for rubble disposal. A simulation is used to estimate selected air quality impacts caused by the operation.
This paper is part of a research paper series which focuses on parking organisation in urban environment. It contains a review of the off-street residential parking organisation practises in 6 cities around the world namely Bangkok, Hong Kong, London, Singapore, Tokyo and Vienna. It consists a finding that the Minimum parking space provision requirement standard is used in most cities except London. Variation in parking policies and regulations can be observed, together with different innovative measures and parking standard adjustment methods. A study to compare number of parking spaces required by different standards is carried out. This paper contains recommendation that further research in other elements of parking organisation such as residential on-street parking or destination on and off-street parking organisation should be carried out. Parking organisation is an effective push measure to drive the current transport system towards sustainability
This paper examines the role of indigenous transport as a potential component of the transport system in the drive towards climate change adaptation, to complement mitigation, especially in developing countries in Asia. The rampant presence of indigenous transport in Asian city streets, either formally or informally, reflects the demand for the mode as well as its important role in the overall transport system. It becomes imperative to understand their role, function and the use of indigenous transport modes within the whole transport network, specifically in the public transport realm, to be able to draw an overall portrait of the potential of indigenous modes to supplement, complement or compete within the transport system. At the same time, the paper hopes to contribute policy-relevant insights to better understand the role of indigenous transport in climate change adaptation
The assessment of road performance in Indonesia so far is only based on the assessment of ratio between the volumes of traffic that crosses a road section with the capacity of roads in its path. This road network performance assessment is an appraisal system that is written in the Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM) issued in 1997, which the substances are mostly adopted from Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). In fact, this HCM basically has different characteristics of transportation, especially in terms of the composition of traffic, the level of side friction, and driver behavior. The survey and analysis that has been done at 35 roads in the city of Medan found the significant differences between travel times based on IHCM with actual travel time. Thus, based on this survey it is argued that MKJI are no longer suitable to be used as the assessment of current road performance.
Most of the traffic police assignment practices in Taiwan are based on experiential rules. Without an in-depth analysis, the prevailing practices may lead to overstaffing or unfair duties loading among the police. To rectify the shortcomings, this paper develops a linear programming (LP) model to solve the traffic police assignment problem. The core logic of the proposed model is to adjust the current work shifts in a reasonable manner and then schedule the available police manpower to various time intervals. For demonstration, the proposed LP model is applied to Da-an Precinct in Taipei. The results showed that it can save up to 16% on the existing deployable police force or 9% on the total police staff in the case precinct. Future directions for traffic police assignment are elaborated.
Although there are so many manhole covers, which cause skid risk to two-wheel vehicles under wet weather condition, installed on the road, so far there is no related specification in Taiwan. The Ministry of Transportation and Communication (MOTC) created a research project in cooperate with National Taiwan University, to provide necessary information before setting a skid resistance requirement for iron-casted manhole covers. This paper introduces the survey and analysis done in the project, and the result shows that most of covers in use do not have good enough skid resistance. This could be attributable to that most of covers have been installed too long, so their texture is too wearing to maintain its function. Nevertheless, since the new-casted covers all performed good skid resistance in the survey, the current situation can be rectified by replacing used covers with new ones.
Taiwan takes BOT approach to build and operate its high speed rail. Several issues such as the enact of new law vs. the modification of old law, tri-party agreement vs. two-party agreement, partner or regulator, refinance vs. take-over, new town vs. old town, expropriation or zonal expropriation, and plan vs. development, occurred during the planning, construction, contracting and operation periods. Taiwan learns its lessons from the process and its outcomes, which could help others to prevent the issues or adapt their plans.
Primary focus of the paper remains land transport modes with a peripheral, though essential, reference to aviation. It profiles growth and development of passenger travel market in India. Along with a historical and evolutionary account of modal share underscoring the ecosystem in which the market has functioned, an imperative need for an optimal modal mix is suggested in the interest of the economy as well as environment. Pricing and cost matrix is an important element, so also the demand and supply analysis, particularly of rail services, for investment planning. Some essential features are catalogued by way of lessons learnt for an optimal modal share, which, in turn, implies judicious investments for capacity build-up and development.
This paper provides an overview of transport sector in Nepal followed by an analysis of existing state of intercity road transport, challenges being faced and opportunities ahead. Besides 54 airports and a 53-kilometer long narrow-gauge rail line, there exists 20,138km of road. Majorities of the passengers are opting micro-buses as a suitable mode of intercity transport in short route as it is reliable, faster than buses and inexpensive than air services. In case of long route of more than 300km, despite of time consuming and other uncomfortable situations, passengers use buses as of their first priority as it is inexpensive than air; which forms 2nd priority. The major challenges being faced include ineffective implementation strategy, unable to avoid adverse geological situation, weak local institutional capacity, and inadequate budget allocation. Future opportunity lies in the fact that the country has to develop expressways and railways to meet the development challenges
This paper describes the present status and major issues of transport statistics in Asia, the strategy for promoting a seamless Asia, and the outline of the study for preparation of database for common and standardized transport statistics in East Asian countries.
Diverse patterns of intercity transport systems across countries reveals that maintaining balanced shares of different modes contributes to both environmental and efficiency objectives. This is because of the better division of the transport market among different modes according to their inherent advantages. The paper proposes a framework for setting vision and strategies to achieve the modal balance, and also forwards a hypothesis on future scenarios emphasizing importance of considering long term changes in travel behavior for formulating effective policies. Finally, focusing on the cases of developing Asian countries, the paper discusses the key issues and related policy options covering such topics as assessing the needs for different transport infrastructure, managing the intermodal competition, coordinating the transport and spatial developments, promoting the low-carbon transport, and exploring alternative financing schemes.
Japan was able to develop advanced transport system in a shortest possible time span, and the performance of the transport system is better than its OECD peers from the West especially in terms of desirable mode share structure in passenger transport. This was in fact achieved through deliberate policy initiatives made in the past. After reviewing intercity transport system in Japan along with emerging issues, this paper makes an attempt to draw relevant policy insights for Asian developing countries. These includes, setting basic institutional arrangement at the early stage, utilizing publicness and commercial viability inherent in transport services, placing cost burden to the beneficiaries, adopt principle of sustainable fare level rather than politically attractive but financially disastrous affordable fare, devise schemes to mobilize domestic saving for transport investment, and develop and use railway mode to serve as backbone of transport system.
As the most dense-populated island, intercity transportation on Java Island plays an important role to address regional disparity. It is hoped that by improving intercity connection will stimulate economic growth in the vicinity areas as well as reduced urbanization rate. This paper discusses study on intercity modal share in two corridors on Java island: Jakarta- Bandung corridor and Jakarta - Surabaya corridor. This study analyzes some factors that influence diverted trend in transportation mode. The methodology used in the analysis comprises the following steps: identified the problem, collecting secondary data, developing model for the problem and conducting a survey. By figuring out those factors, it is expected that it can be implemented as a consideration in improving balanced modal shared to support economic development.
In the past, beginning with Seoul-Pusan highway, Korea has invested in the increase of road extensions. However, in comparison, railways have increased 1000km and thus have had an overall extension of approximately 3900 km. The problem with Koreas intercity transportation system can be seen as the increase of social economic costs, lack of investment efficiency, logistic costs, cost of traffic congestion and traffic accident related costs. The fact that we have less land and stock compared to other similar countries also proves to be a problem. The government focus of transport is being converted to a transport and logistics based direction of policy. It is important we do not stop at increasing our investments in railways but specifically research the measures which other countries are taking to confront such climate changes and work towards increasing and consistently developing the development of low carbon green growth.
This paper presents the survey of the Route 12 Economic Corridor (R12), the shortest international land route connecting Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Guangxi, China. After the opening of the 3rd Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge in November 2011, the R12 corridor will be completed and would be significantly used for logistics and tourism activities. This study includes the survey of existing route condition, as well as, route development plans from Thailand, Lao, and Vietnam. It was found that although the existing route could be used for logistics and tourist activities, many improvements of logistics and tourist facilities along the route would be needed to extend the opportunities of this economic corridor.
Moscow region in Russia has started tackling to the transport problems. Actually more than 2,500 people are killed in traffic accidents in a year in this region and it is said that the total monetary annual loss can be 1 billion dollars. This paper introduces the traffic situation in Moscow and analyzes the cause and countermeasures. The causes of traffic congestion are classified into three categories: "Problems on drivers' behavior", "problems in transport system" and "problems in social system." And the countermeasures are classified into three categories: "traffic regulation improvement", "infrastructure improvement" and "control and user education." It was found that in the long run they have to construct plenty of infrastructures but on the other hand there exist plenty of devices or ideas to improve traffic situation in short term.
Dense rivers, canals and lakes networks have long served as the lifeblood of Asian countries. Boat transport used to be dominant, but have been declining for many years. In the wage of climate change, sustaining and developing waterways transport is an opportunity to achieve sustainability in Asia. This study attempts to explore and understand historical role, potential, recent trends, issues and challenges of inland waterway transport in the region. Preliminary results show that various water cultures do exist. Though quite many places find themselves having turned away from waterways toward highways, some cultures still see the popularity of boats. To promote passenger boat services, key issues must be addressed, including low safety, discomfort, short service time, and poor accessibility to boat services. Governments need to change their mindsets in formulating long term development strategies for realizing the water lifestyles as a valid cultural accomplishment.
Intercity transportation in Malaysia is quite similar to other countries, which involve three kinds of modes, namely, bus, rail and air. Among these modes, bus transportation continues to be the top choice for intercity travelers in Malaysia. Bus offers more flexibility compared to the other transport modes. Due to its relatively cheaper fare as compared to the air transport, bus is more affordable to those with low income. However, bus transport service today is starting to face higher competition from rail and air transport due to their attractive factors. The huge challenge faced by intercity bus transport in Malaysia is the management of its services. The intercity bus transport does not fall under one management; unlike rail transport which is managed under Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB), or air transport which is managed under Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad (MAHB). This paper discusses the competition between intercity buses and other modes.
This study aims at assessing the effects of Udo's vehicle restriction policy enforced by Jeju Special Self-Governing Province in July 2008. Authority initiated the policy to enhance the traffic safety and protecting its nature and environment. The effects are assessed by conducting before and after study. Using monthly data for visitors and vehicles entering the Island, regression analysis model is used to identify the changes in travel patterns by comparing the data for before and after of policy enforcement. To identify the opinions of local residents and relevant personnel about the policy, an interview method with a set of questionnaires is employed.
Korea's public bicycle systems (PBS) represent one of the main bicycle policies in the country since they were first introduced in 2008. Today, a number of cities are considering and planning a PBS as a measure to promote bicycle use. City governors believe that a PBS provides an effective substitute for the large number of short-distance trips made by cars in urban areas, so they are trying to increase bicycle share by using a PBS. On the other hand, the cost of construction and operation is very expensive compared to the purchase of private bicycles. Also, there have been no reports of any PBS being operated without subsidies from city governments. Most of all, there is hardly any comparison analysis knowledge about the results of the PBS operation results or the characteristics of PBS uses in three main Korean cities: Changwon, Goyang, and Daejeon.
Jeju Island has the unique features in terms of region, history, culture, and politics compared to other places in Republic of Korea. The island has also drawn much attention as one of the international travel attractions since it is located in the geographical center of Northeast Asia. Therefore, it is believed to be necessary to make full use of the advantages that Jeju Island has as a test bed for various green transportations and green transportation policies that are currently under development domestically. In addition, it is possible to perform a more effective experiment if various contents of transportation and tourism in the island are utilized. It is also believed to be convenient to promote the results of such experiment and their usefulness to the international community.
The aim of this paper is to investigate intra-week fluctuations and trends in the dry bulk freight market and to estimate predictive model of freight index for short run pricing strategies in shipping business. In regular terms, five trading days exist in a week and investors may tend to move over the trends of the beginning of a week. Therefore, a spillover effect exists between Monday and Friday pricing tendencies of freight market. This paper investigates existence of intra-week spillover effect and estimates its structural model by using classical linear regression method. Foremost results indicate strong relationship between both ends of the week.
This paper intends to study the reform of public bus transport services, and in this case both London and Seoul experiences. The study will star with briefly reviews of the reforms in those two countries respectively, and then discuss some key points of the reforms in order to derive some valuable learning of those two countries reforms experiences. The discussion will be constrained and more focus on the regulatory framework in the provision of public bus transport service, since it will determine the way of planning and operating of public transport service provided. The results of the study could be important consideration in doing public transport reform in order to increase the efficiency and the quality of public bus service provision to communities.
Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) around the world have become increasingly popular as an alternative way to finance infrastructure projects. Some of these projects also have growth opportunities and may be in a better position to be developed as a multi-staged project. Economic valuation methods such as discounted cash flow (DCF) ignore strategic values such as expansion options embedded in these projects, which result in undervalued project. Real options, commonly used with decision trees analysis (DTA), were introduced to address this problem of the DCF. However, The DTA assumes the time to make a decision is predetermined. This assumption is invalid when the decisions can be made any time within a project life. This paper presents a flexible point decision tree analysis (FP-DTA) and the Branching and Folding Back (BFB) method, upon which FP-DTA, real options, and Monte Carlo simulation are based. This approach helps facilitate project economic evaluation under uncertainty.
Malaysia is currently facing crucial stage in the rapid development of the economics and transport sectors. With more vehicles on the road and more kilometers to travel, road accident fatality and injury has become inevitable and common disaster among the nation. In the aftermath, the burden placed on the victims and survivors was hardly justified to the whole. Thus, this paper aims to present Malaysian estimate of the value of statistical life (VOSL) to solicit out the subjective human value associated to road accident fatality and injury. Nationwide survey interview to eligible 3000 respondents were performed to provide the VOSL estimation and the main contributing factors to the valuation. The VOSL for fatality in road accident was estimated between USD 0.31 million to USD 0.53 million. Serious injury values ranged from USD 0.14 million to USD 0.28 million while slight injury ranges from USD 0.06 million to USD 0.20 million.
The Korean government published sustainable transport indicators in April 2010, and with these indicators, evaluated the transportation sustainability in each of 84 Korean cities. The purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the transportation sustainability in OECD countries with the same indicators as were used in Korea, allowing the comparison between the present position of Korean transportation sustainability and economic scale with other nations. According to the evaluation based on 2007 data, European countries such as Norway and Sweden received a favorable evaluation, while Korea was in grade 4. There is not enough data to explain the relationship between economic scale and transportation sustainability, because the results could be different if other economic indicators are applied.
This study can be meaningful in examining the present position of Korea relative to other nations helping to establish and enforce future sustainable transportation policy.
Socio-economic development generates new travel demand that strains the capacity of existing road systems and produces negative externalities posing resource and technical challenges to local governments in the Philippines. This research explored the viability of introducing Traffic Impact Fee (TIF) at local levels as a policy response. The TIF requires new developments to pay a proportionate cost of improving road capacity. An improvement-driven TIF model, using a limited area approach, was applied on a residential development project in Cabanatuan City to understand the opportunities and constraints arising from TIF implementation. The research concludes that there is potential for TIF adoption.
This study shows how to measure CO2 emissions caused by railways through the life span from construction to disposal. It is now common global concern that CO2 reduction is vital for conserving the global environment. Amidst this growing awareness railways have attracted significant attention as an environmentally-friendly transportation due to its low CO2 emission. But in many studies the amount of CO2 is calculated only during operation and doesn't include emissions during the phase of construction of related infrastructure and rolling stocks. Railway is not a truly environmentally-friendly transportation mode if it isn't proven to emit less compared with others during the whole life cycle. We hope this study will be helpful for selecting the best environmentally-friendly alternative for transportation projects.
The technological means of transportation for minerals, raw materials and materials in the road construction and mining fields are imported and exploited in Mongolia. Per t/km value of the technological means of transportation used in our country was compared with the analogical methods in developed countries. The costs of loading and unloading were included in the valuation methods of technological means of transportation used in the road, construction and mining field. The newly worked out per t/km valuation of the technological means of transportation was made using program.
This paper examines the effects of toll free policy for expressways which is to be introduced in Japan. A model that is developed by combining a general equilibrium model of a multi-city economy and deterministic user equilibrium traffic assignment model is applied for examining the effects of the toll free policy. Numerical simulations are carried out to examine the effects of the toll free policy on the welfare of households. It is shown that the toll free policy applied to all of the expressways in Hokkaido, Japan brings about the social welfare of 31.2 [billion JPY/year], and that applied to some part of expressways where traffic congestion rarely occurs brings about the social welfare of 41.2 [billion JPY/year].
This study aims to explore user preferences regarding various public transport policies in Indonesia. Questionnaire surveys were distributed among public transport users in three different metropolitan centers in Indonesia (Jakarta, Bandung, and Yogyakarta). User preferences and acceptance of various public transport policies were found to be different in each city. Differences in social, cultural, and educational background among the users surveyed in the three cities were found to be the determinant factors in differentiating user preferences.
The Cost-Benefit analysis is a worldwidely applied methodology to verify the validity of the transportation SOC project. But in general the indices included in the analysis are insufficient to measure various effects because there exists many difficulties to measure various qualitative benefits. In this research it is proposed that the closeness centrality can be utilized as a accessibility index. The closeness centrality is a index to measure the centrality of some node or region in social science area. We verify the suitability of the index with a small size network and suggest the application of the index on the feasibility study of the transportation SOC project.
This paper, as a part of a series of researches focusing on relationships between organizational structures of urban public transport and entire urban transport systems, focuses on how to describe and typify the organizational structure. With a literature review taken into consideration, a diagram is developed to describe organizational structures. Then, using this, structures of four cities, namely London, Vienna, Tokyo, and Soul, are described. Following this, three typologies are derived from the structures in the four cities. At the end, brief discussions related to the main focus of the research; relationships between the organizational structure and transport systems; are made.
Since cities in developing countries typically rely on private vehicles for their travel activities, consequently, understanding the need for parking is one of the important factors in transportation system development. This article analyzed the relationship between the quality of public space of shopping centers and the parking duration. Data from questionnaire survey conducted in four shopping centers were used for this purpose. Rank Spearman correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the attributes and the parking duration. The results indicate each shopping center has its own specific attribute(s) that correlated to the parking duration. However, attributes with exceptional positive perception do not necessary contribute to this.
In this paper, we categorize national transport policies of Germany, Japan and China from the viewpoint of economic, information, regulation and technology. Moreover we evaluate the development and insufficiencies of major international anti-climate-change negotiations and mechanisms. We find that the selected developed and developing countries have been effectively implementing their own domestic policies guiding to a sustainable transport. However, methodological, financial and institutional barriers of existing mechanisms have hampered transport sector in abating climate change through international coordination. As a proposal for the future mechanism design, we suggest a flexible mechanism that is expected to be workable for transport through the development of policy based CDM, institutional reform, rewarding co-benefits and adoption of programmatic approaches.
In Japan, an aging society has come. Theinhabitants of middle mountainous ares use cars as the daily transportation mode. On the other hand, most elders who can not drive by themselves tend to depend on pick-up services by household members. However, the pick-up service constrains both driver's and passenger's activities. In addition, household members will face more frequent pick-up neds from elders in the future because some of pick-up service providers would be a consumer of pick-up service, due to their aging. In order to tackle this problem, this study simulates hybrid transportation service such as "pick-up for feeding to bus" which combines the pick-up for feeding by household members and drivers in other households, to the regular bus services. The purpose of this study is to evaluate according to the waiting time of pick-up and achievement rate of elder's activities.
Despite efforts to improve the programming and implementation by the central and regional road agencies, the quality of national road system is constantly decreasing. For years the government of Indonesia has relied on traditional design-bid-build approach for delivery of road and highway construction and maintenance projects. This paper reports the result of study on alternative project delivery methods for road construction in Indonesia as way to improve the quality of national road system. The study is the first step toward identifying the potential application of alternative delivery method for the national road network system. The paper also summarizes the survey results from road agencies and contractor concerning the current road project delivery system as well as attempts to assess the viability of implementing design-build and performance-based contract approach
Recently, various toll policies and social experiments have been conducted for ETC users in Japanese expressway. While the vast number of the reports refers about the change of traffic for each section, the influence of toll policies is hardly evaluated from the statistical viewpoint, due to the lack in an adequate model to deal with the multivariate time series including many peaks. This study purposes to clarify the influence of toll policies on the traffic of expressway by using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The continuously observed traffic data at several different sites on the expressway have been decomposed into the several independent series with the mixing coefficient, i.e. weight parameters to convert the independent series into the observed series. The estimated independent series under the different toll were statistically compared to clarify whether the significant difference between the independent series appear, or not.
This paper aims at finding a suitable approach and organization for metropolitan transportation planning (MTP) for Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA). Three approaches for MTP process were investigated i.e. bottom-up, top-down and combined, and three types of metropolitan transport authority organization were examined including an adhoc organization with no power, powerful organization and a hybrid type. The results showed that both top-down and bottom-up approaches have to be combined, and it was found that a hybrid type of authority organization is more suitable for BMA transport planning governance.
Due to the rapid development of road passenger transport, the business of Road-Passenger-Transport-Based Express has been developed. However, the low office density and bad security limits its further development. This study implements a survey and builds a model to analyze the mode choice behaviors of shippers. Some suggestions on expanding their market share are offered based on the choice behaviors analyses. In the study, firstly the express modes are divided into pure-air transport and non-air one, and the latter is further divided into EMS, RPTB express, professional express and van express. Secondly, sensitivities of the access distance, client occupation and service level on the market are analyzed. At last, based on the findings, a business method, in which the road passenger transport operator and the urban transit company does the works of collecting and distributing expresses, is suggested.
After raising the needs, analyzing and assessing the development and implementation of the Master Plan for Urban Transport in the past time in terms of aspects for sustainable development such as economic, social, environmental, financial, and management, propose general and specific criteria and norms for the urban transport infrastructure and urban transportation, identify challenges and weaknesses of urban transport master plans and SWOT matrix analysis, the paper recommends solutions in completing the urban transport master plan enabling the city transport to develop in line with the general strategy and master plan in order to step by step heighten urban transport civilization in the large cities of Vietnam.
The objectives of the paper are to investigate process of voluntary change in travel behavior and to evaluate the impacts of psychological factors by trip purpose. For the analysis, a total of 1,000 samples, randomly selected from three cities in the Seoul Metropolitan area in Korea were used. The survey questionnaire contained 10 sections (including four sections for psychological factors) and 19 questions. We also constructed three psychological process models by trip purpose (Commuting, Shopping, and Leisure trip) based on a structure equation model using AMOS 16 software. The estimation results showed there are different variables that can affect the process of voluntary car use reduction and the coefficient of trip purpose. Furthermore, this paper suggests an effective MM policy guideline that considers the features of trip purpose based on the estimated models.
Although high-speed railway (primarily Shinkansen) networks have shown improvement in recent years, such services still lag in some areas. As for air travel, following deregulation, some carriers abandoned domestic air routes that were unprofitable and reduced services to others. Therefore, intercity travel times have actually increased in some areas of Japan. However, intercity mobility is different for each pair of cities, and improvements to transportation infrastructure and services are often the subject of intense debate when needs to rectify regional disparities are discussed. The purpose of this study is to clarify disparities of Japanese intercity mobility from 1971 to 2009 using the Malmquist index. Following which, the causes of increasing or decreasing disparities in intercity mobility are analyzed. The results of this study indicate that intercity mobility disparities showed decreasing trends prior to 1991. However, since 1994, such disparities have increased slightly.