Transportation studies cover a wide range of topics consisting not only of planning, design and construction but also of policy, operations, economics, and impacts on society. This paper attempts a taxonomic classification of these studies and probes the extent of their scientific nature. First, what defines a discipline as scientific is introduced and the principles of scientific research are identified. The multidisciplinary aspects of transportation studies and the various focus areas are then discussed. Examples of broad areas of transportation studies are provided with a focus on inherent scientific principles. It is concluded that although the study procedures and the level of adherence to basic scientific principles may vary from one area to another, there are identifiable features that distinguish transportation studies as a distinct scientific inquiry, irrespective of the areas of application.
Wine is a temperature sensitive product. On the shipping route from New Zealand to Major export markets in the northern hemisphere, wine shipments face high equatorial temperatures and large temperature fluctuations that might degrade/damage the wine's quality. This article focuses on the possible temperature fluctuations on major shipping routes under various conditions. Information from data recorders have been collected in sample containers. The sample containers included general containers and containers with an insulated liner. This article has reinforced that quality control is very important during the entire length of the wine supply chain. Suggestions have been given for future studies and possible ways to eliminate the temperature fluctuation are also discussed.
With the global economic and extensive trade cooperation, it is much higher frequently that china connect with other country in trade and people commuting.The civil aviation is played important role in the integration of multi modal traffic and transportation network. Here discuss the three relationship of (1)airport and flight course network topology;(2)the airport network with the region attract and origin activity, and (3) the airport group layout.Sum up the study content and give some suggest for china airport planning.
International Standard requires emergency medical service (EMS) response time to be less than 8 minutes. To reduce the response time for improving the survival rate needs to know the phenomena of EMS call for better management. This article focuses on analyzing the factors of such a problem. A total of 13,871 records from in 2004 were employed to identify the probability distribution of EMS calls and to establish several occurrence probability models. The population data were found to be day dependent; the weekday pattern is different from the weekend pattern. In addition, the data are also time-dependent. Results of Chi-square tests show that the occurrence intervals follow the exponential distribution which means the pattern of EMS calls follows a nonhomogeneous Poisson process.
The downpour which had occurred in Nagoya city area from September 11 to 12, 2000 had caused severe damage to the city's traffic network, and highlighted the problem about the method of giving information, traffic management, and driver's behavior under the downpour. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on automobile traffic, and aim to consider the traffic information and traffic management for promoting driver's appropriate behavior under a heavy rainfall disaster. Especially, we analyze driver's consciousness and activity under downpour by using driver's experience data, and develop departure behavioral models of drivers under downpour in order to analyze the relationship between the driver's departure behavior and the traffic network and rainfall situation.
Concepts and methods for analysing accessibility are essential for understanding many significant social, economic, and political issues. All accessibility measures seek to define the level of opportunity and choice taking account of both the existence of opportunities, and the transport options available to reach them. To study these issues this research has focused on the Australian road network as the primary database with the interest in accessibility directed at those who live in rural and remote areas, rather than urban dwellers. At first stage, this research focuses on spatial approaches to the conceptualisation, measurement, and analysis of accessibility at the regional level. At next level, this research attempts to analyse socio-economic indicator (Income) in regional Australia and relate it to road network accessibility. In the final stage attempt has been made to identify the weak spots in the regional road network based on the extent of accessibility changes.
Methodologies for assessing the seismic risk of a high speed railway system were limited to analysis of fragilities of structures and vibration dynamics of vehicles in the past. A deterministic or scenario based approach assuming a particular devastating earthquake was also used in some methodologies. A seismic risk assessment methodology that can estimate the risk of derailment caused by earthquake is proposed in this study. Among constituent factors, the effectiveness of the seismic early warning system that detects the occurrence of earthquakes before the strong ground motion reaches the line is concerned. This study addresses a formulated method to quantify cost-benefit tradeoffs between gain in safety and false alarms. In addition, an assessment model of consequences in terms of injuries and fatalities in derailment disaster, an approach method for network of Shinkansen, and a graphical user interface are considered as perspective studies.
The purpose of this research is to estimate risk models, which can assess the safety at a railway level crossing. The accident risk, in terms of equivalent fatalities in a period of time, is decomposed into two parts: the accident likelihood, in terms of number of accidents per period, and the accident impact, in terms of equivalent fatalities per accident. Each of the risk dimensions is investigated, using nonlinear regression, Poisson regression, and negative binomial regression, and considering the effect of exposure variables, highway characteristics, railway characteristics, and the control devices, at railway level crossings. Empirical results indicate that Poisson regression is good for the estimation of accident likelihood; and negative binomial regression is good for the estimation of accident risk and accident impact.
There has been growing interest in minimizing damages by disasters, but the countermeasure in traffic engineering has been limited to the passive researches such as evaluating transportation network. The algorithm suggested by this paper was the active countermeasure to find directly the optimal road sections for investment against catastrophes using the optimization process and the simulation. This was composed of three modules such as scenarios, model, and aggregation. First, scenarios were made by the assumption of unusual behaviors under 'life or death' situation. Second, the object function using the number of dead people and the budget constraint were included into the optimization equation. Then, the results of iterated scenarios were aggregated to the best alternative, using the possibility of disaster occurrence. Lastly, it is applied using the network and production of Ulsan City in South Korea.
The practice of transportation engineering and planning has employed trip rates to determine the number of trips generated by developments. Trip generation serves as an input to modeling transportation requirements and traffic flows influenced by the development. For example, a condominium may directly impact traffic within a 10 km radius. Meanwhile, a shopping mall can impact an area of over 50 km in radius. These trips generated and attracted are represented by standard rates for trip generation like those published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers. This paper discusses the trip rates used in transportation research and practice in the Philippines. The paper also describes the current efforts in the development of trip rates for various land use types. An assessment of issues and concerns pertaining to local trip and rates are discussed, and recommendations for future research directions are also presented.
In comparison to bus, passenger van offers shorter journey time, increased headway, improved reliability, higher levels of comfort, less frequent stopping, guaranteed seating and air conditioning. Equipped with such advantages, it is perhaps unsurprising that the advent of passenger van has provoked noticeable changes in the travel behaviour of Bangkok commuters. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the preferences of public transit users in general, and passenger van users in particular, towards several service quality attributes, and to exploit such insights in the planning of future services. The main Stated Preference surveying techniques were based on passenger van users which were drawn from three strata pertaining to different spatial locations, specifically inner city, urban fringe and suburban. The analysis was exploited the merger of the various SP experiments and the phenomenon of repeated observations.
The present study is a follow-up study of Wang and Hu (2005). We extend the study of the previous study by decomposing the emergency network reconstruction problem into an emergency evacuation network reconstruction and an emergency rescue network reconstruction problem. In this study, the emergency evacuation network reconstruction problems are the main focus. We formulate the emergency evacuation network reconstruction for natural disasters as a bi-level programming model. In the model, the victims evacuation route choice behaviors and evacuation destinations choice behaviors are both considered at the same time. This concern is the most different point from Wang and Hu (2005). Moreover, the multi-class users evacuation route choice behaviors are also considered in the model. Finally, the optimal network reconstruction planning, disaster victims emergency evacuation route planning under multi-class users route choice and destination choice conditions can be obtained.
This study aims to investigate task complexity problems in stated choice valuation of non-market environmental goods. Data from a web-based survey on the valuation of the environmental impacts of motor-vehicle use in Metro Mania were used for this purpose. Two factors leading to task complexity problems were considered: (1) non-linearity in the utility function indicating uncertainty in preferences, and (2) parameterization of the scale of the stochastic error of the utility indicating decision complexity. The results of empirical investigations show strong suggestions that degree of complexity of the choice problem is affected by not only by the number of alternatives but also by the range and the description of the attribute.
This paper adopted Poisson regression model to investigate motorcycle ownership and car ownership characteristics using the household survey data in three typical cities in Taiwan. The different ownership characteristics of motorcycle in the cities are significantly illustrated by the research results. According to the results, the car ownership will reduce when motorcycle ownership increases. High public transportation usage will reduce the motorcycle ownership in the city which has better public transportation system. The income has significant negative influence on motorcycle ownership. The different motorcycle ownership in the cities with different transportation development features in Taiwan can provide a valuable experience in expecting future development tendency of motorcycle ownership for other Asian countries.
While Taiwanese people and government celebrate for initiating service of the first high-speed railroad, there are certain possible financial and management crises within Taiwan High-Speed Railroad Co (THSR). As the first and most significant BOT project in Taiwan, THSR Co. faces certain financial problems which would affects the successful of this BOT project. The author argues the ambiguity of property right transfer during the BOT process and the formation of new power bloc in Taiwan are the causes of such financial problems.
The development of traffic data collection is promoted by IT technology. Probe vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in the field of ITS, and showing high ability for various ITS applications in the last decade. The overwhelming superiority of probe technology relies on a good coverage and a high penetration rate of probe vehicles. Although conceivable, the expectation of ubiquitous coverage of the entire road network is still far away from actual implementation nowadays. Through the review of current studies on the probe systems in ITS projects around the world, recent advances in probe technology are explored, following by an analysis of the impending obstacles or trade-offs that were faced by the extension of probe implementation. It is recognized that a cost-efficiency probe deployment scheme is of certainty to be the impetus of probe system evolution.
Congestion at toll plazas has been the common scenario in Malaysian expressways. In view of the delay, toll operators have introduced two ways of transaction in Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) system which is the contact-less smart card toll lane and the non-stop with barrier lane. Despite having the system introduced, traffic congestion at toll plazas still occurs. 800 questionnaires had been randomly distributed to road users and commuters to evaluate their views on the system based on their experience. As a conclusion, we can say that the road user's level income has a slight impact on the number of users using the ETC system. However, there a significant number of non-ETC users that actually earned a high income and still would prefer to use the manual payment system due to some dissatisfactions to the system. Problems aroused related to ETC system includes the pricing and the reload system.
Different types of road-based public transportation vehicles can be observed in many developing nations of Southeast Asia.In the Philippines, public utility jeepneys and tricycles are very popular. This study uses the concept of indigenous public transport modes. That is, low-occupancy, road-based motor vehicles and with unique design identifiable to its place of origin and sometimes have informal nature of operation. Thus, this paper aims to understand the different types of motor vehicles used as public transport service and in particular describe the indigenous modes by studying the public transportation system of Davao City, Philippines using a holistic planning and policy perspective iby understanding the history and role of different public transport modes thru its key stakeholders: government units, supply and demand using small-scale survey.
The objective of this study is to propose methods for determining optimal representative value and the optimal size of historical data for reliable travel time forecasting. We selected values with the smallest mean of forecasting errors as the optimal representative value of travel time pattern data. The optimal size of historical data used was determined using the CVMSE (Cross Validated Mean Square Error) method. According to the results of applying the methods to point vehicle detection data of Korea Highway Corporation, the optimal representative value were analyzed to be median. Because mean used in previous researchers are influenced by each historical profile of travel time patterns, the distribution is easily skewed if there are very large or very small values in the travel time pattern data. Second, it was analyzed that 60 days? data is the optimal size of historical data used for travel time forecasting.
In order to analysis the position and role of transportation industry on the national economy rationally, the paper use the input-output theory to compare and analyze the characteristics of industry relevancy and industry spread in transportation industry and five transportation mode between China and America. Comparatively, the status of the Chinese transportation industry plays important role than before in the national economy. The transportation industry in China belongs to the industries that the ratio of intermediate demand is high, and its drawing power for the relevant industries is larger than America. The impact coefficient of the Chinese transportation industry is obviously larger than its response coefficient, the inducing ability of export to transportation industry is higher than other ultimately demands. Finally, the proposals in developing Chinese transportation industry are put forward.
Rapid development of modern information technology and wide use of logistics technology such as EDI, RFID, GIS, GPS and GSM make real-time goods tracing possible. According to the characteristics of the third party logistics in our country, this paper introduces the design and implementation of a GPS real-time goods tracing system based on the technology of GPS, GIS and GSM short message service system. Topo-structure and the software architecture analyzes the key technique of the implementation of various subsystem with the system that customers could inquire the location, the status and the appropriate arrival time of goods on the web. The moving target can be monitored, scheduled, navigated and altered on real time.
The quality of transport system is a main factor in economic development. Transportation research provides the knowledge, skill and tools to implement efficient transport policies, systems and services. The three-year Translink project is a partnership between two European and two South-East Asian Universities with the overall aim to promote sustainable urban development in this region through development of their human resources for transportation research. Institutional assistance is also provided aiming at creation of full PhD programme in their departments. The need for research is studied through identification of Critical Issues in Transportation. Furthermore, guidelines for carrying out PhD research training, supervision and assessment are developed as well as advice for institutional of Transport Research Schools
This paper tries to study the dynamic relationship between throughput of DCT and economic development of Northeast China with time-varying parameter state space model. The following three indicators are selected to be the explanatory variables: 1) actual GDP; 2) total value of export & import; 3) proportion of second industry output value to GDP, which represent the overall economic level, degree of economic opening and industry structure respectively. The conclusions are that the first and second indicators always have positive impact on the throughput of DCT, and the second indicator's influence has become more obvious than the first one since 2002. But the third indicator has a negative impact on it, and furthermore this influence has become stronger since 2000. Government should fully consider the impact of industry structure on the long-term development of DCT in order to avoid waste of resources.
This paper studied the results of employing the Internet-based response method for a person trip survey of the Northern Kyushu area. First, the survey system was put in order and described. Next, with regard to the survey results, the Internet-based response rate, the structure of respondents' attributes, and the respondents' trip characteristics were analyzed to understand the effect of employing the Internet-based survey method. Furthermore an analysis was performed on the use of the Internet-based response method. As the results, we were able to confirm the effectiveness of the Internet-based response method employed for person trip survey.
The thesis mainly introduce unitary structure design, exploitative technology model and realization method of railway station signal control equipment fault diagnosis expert system in detail and base on research production of science and technology development program in Chinese railway ministry.
Site survey was conducted in Hanoi's six streets to examine how people live today in Hanoi, how they use public spaces in their neighborhoods and how many and what type of street trees are currently planted on the streets. The results of surveys were documenting on how much and where people walk, sit, stand, and carry out various peoples' activities in the Hanoi's street and number and type of planted tree species in the Hanoi's street. Interestingly two facts coming out from this survey results are, peoples' activities under trees are significantly higher than not under tree activities and the most planted tree species do not have maximum amount of peoples' activities underneath.
This paper reviews transport policy, implementation and its impact in Bangkok. Bangkok has not done any special measures in its transportation system. Many ambitious policies have been planned like the exclusive bus lane and the automatic location system for buses. However, they have only reached the experimental level and have not reached full implementation because of financial constraints and political conflicts. Only the ring road, expressway, overpass, underpass, truck ban, BTS and MRT have been successfully implemented.
The Household Travel Survey in City of Seoul has been conducted every five years since 1996. The third survey was performed in the year 2006, which collected travel and demographic information of households residing in City of Seoul, Korea. The project consists of Weekday Survey, Weekend Survey, and Supplementary Telephone Survey for Correcting the Under-Reporting problems. Sample size of weekday survey should be more than 3% of households (about 102,000 households) in City of Seoul and final sample size after eliminating erroneous samples should be at least 2% of households. For preliminary and main examination of returned questionnaires, many investigators were hired for about a month. Using survey data, we analyzed weekday and weekend travel characteristics in terms of travel purposes and modes. In this paper, we would like to introduce our survey, and share experience of survey process.
As far as transportation is concerned in Shanghai, at the beginning of the 1990s the number of private cars began to cause congestion problems. Since then investment in transportation infrastructure has soared. Today the city road system is capable of bearing a large part of the traffic load. Public transport accommodates millions passengers each day. Several bus-way has been established and more have planned. The city has five urban rail lines and will be extend 400 km in 2010. Cycling has diminished somewhat, but two-wheelers remain a popular conveyance. As far as car traffic goes, licence plate control takes place, but jams are still a plague, particularly in the centre of town. The density is so high in city centre, a multi-polar plan has been adopted. Finally, some conclusion has been made for the success and failure of urban transport polices in Shanghai.
"International competitiveness" is fundamental to government policy and economic planning and activities, and is a very important keyword in national strategy. However, at present there is not a single definition of "international competitiveness," and although this word is shared by each industry, the perception of international competitiveness is by no means shared. This is said to be because to measure competitiveness, various indices are used, and the ranking of the results is given more attention than the objectives or the structure of the indices. The public frequently hears of the IMD index; however, when viewed from the standpoint of industry, the ranking results frequently seem inconsistent. Therefore, JAPIC has proposed a new "JAPIC International Competitiveness Index," focused on the East Asia region as the continuing "growth center of the world," from the point of view of how to cooperate with each country to strengthen, maintain, and develop competitiveness.
This paper analyzes how the value of travel time savings (VTTSs) varies over individual's income. First, we formulate a time allocation model and examine the variation of VTTS over income with the comparative static analysis. The results show that the variation of VTTS over income depends on whether the marginal utility is increasing or decreasing with respect to the work time. As a shape of utility function cannot be fixed a priori, we cannot know clearly the variation of VTTS over income. Then, we analyze the VTTS over income empirically with the travel data of urban rail in Tokyo. We estimate the Multinomial Logit model and the Mixed Logit model for six different income groups. The empirical analysis shows that the VTTS increases as the income increases.
This paper first theoretically analyzes the current problem of air ticket pricing in China, and investigates the consciousness of travelers on the price level with Price Sensitivity Measurement. Secondly, from the perspective of air transport suppliers, optimal air ticket model is built for suppliers benefit increment, and from the perspective of travelers, rational air ticket price model is built for market scale enlargement. With consideration of different price sensitivity of business and private consumers, this paper distinguishes them. Finally, by taking Dalian-Beijing flight as an example, data are collected from the questionnaire analysis and optimal air ticket price point and the rational price point are estimated with the models, respectively. The results of the example show that the current ticket price is higher both for business consumers and for private one, which matches the theoretical analysis. The numerical test verifies the feasibility and availability of the method.
This paper identified the latent variables that will positively or negatively affect drivers' enroute switching behavior and explored the causal effect by applying structural equation modeling. Then binary logit model was used to confirm whether latent variables and information scenarios will affect drivers' enroute switching behavior. Empirical findings indicate that the latent variables of perceived value, usage attitude and compliance rate toward traffic information would positively enhance freeway drivers' enroute switching rates, but switching barrier and congestion tolerability would largely impede them in the case of Taiwan. However, providing more detailed information on alternative routes can motivate drivers' enroute switching behavior during traffic congestion.
This paper presents a Real-time Traveler Information System (RTIS) for Hong Kong, in which a novel solution algorithm is proposed for estimating current travel times using automatic vehicle identification (AVI) and global positioning system (GPS) data. The proposed algorithm can deduce the travel times on road links either with or without real-time traffic data by integration of real-time and off-line traffic database together. The travel time estimates are displayed on a GIS-based RTIS website portal and updated once every five-minute interval. Observation surveys are carried out during different time periods at a selected path in Hong Kong urban area to validate the RTIS travel time estimates. The estimations of travel times on the road segments of the selected path have been conducted in the case of with and without real-time data available. The validation results show that the performance of RTIS is satisfactory and acceptable.
This paper aims to analyze what shape of inter-modal network is efficient in Japan, and how beneficial it would be. Genetic Algorithm is applied to find the best mixture of Haneda Airport's slot allocation to other destinations and the spatial configuration of high-speed train network, which maximize the total consumer surplus of Japanese inter-city domestic passengers, under given combinations of total slots number and total HST lines. The result of our analysis shows that HST service of 2,400km is essential for keep mobility, but Haneda slot shortage is solved by additional HST service. The shape of HST network changes from centralized one to local feeder type, when stronger substitution is expected due to strict Haneda slot capacity.
It is widely agreeable that sustainable public transport is important for developing cities. However, there is a wide variation in definition of sustainable public transport. Thus, this article has an aim to explore the sustainability of urban public transport in the city of Medan, as one of the main cities in Indonesia. Based on rigorous literature, it can be deduced the red line of the definition of sustainable urban transport. Based on the data of urban transport and its social demographic of the city of Medan, it can be concluded that the urban transport in Medan is not sustainable in many facets. In addition, the comprehensive urban transport planning to reach and to shape the public transport in Medan has been proposed.
This study proposes an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate whether psychological factors can be predictors for the behavioral intention of private car use in future work trips. The study sample comprised 156 undergraduate students who were in their senior year and were expected to graduate in the next few months. A questionnaire survey was conducted to measure several psychological variables related to private car use for future work trips after graduation. Core constructs included subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control, with an addition of moral obligation. Based on structural equation modeling, we found subjective norm, attitude and moral obligation to be significant determinants for the behavioral intention. Contrary to the TPB, perceived behavioral control was not found to be a statistically significant factor influencing the intention of private car use in future work trips. Practical implementations of the results are discussed.
In Asian and African developing cities, decisions on transportation projects are made with capital cost constraints and administrative influences, thus, providing a well-designed public transport is not a simple task. Therefore, multi-criteria decision-making methods that can incorporate the conflicting considerations are essential. This case study introduced the application of ANP for public transportation development programs. Even though ANP is the generalization of AHP, the results of the two models were compared to see the effects of the feedback, outer and inner dependences of the elements. According to the result, ANP model give a relative importance for environmental and socio-economic benefits as a criteria of public transport development, however, the AHP model turned out to give importance for the capital cost and capacity. Providing Bus Rapid Transit and Light Rail are the chosen alternatives in the case of ANP, where as AHP model choose expanding the existing bus services.
Consider a city of an arbitrary shape where difference classes of users are distributed continuously over the city region. Within this region, the road network is dense and can be represented as a continuum and users patronize a two-dimensional continuum transportation system to the central business district. In this paper, two different congestion-pricing models for this continuum transportation system with multiple user classes are studied. The first model is concerned about the social welfare maximization, which determines the optimal toll rates that maximize the total benefit of the whole system, and the second model is cordon-based congestion-pricing, which offers a sub-optimal but more practical tolling strategy. Both of these models are solved by the finite element method and a promising Newtonian-based solution algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is adopted for giving an idea on the impact of cordon toll charges on the resultant social welfare.
Congestion pricing is one of the most popular strategies to tackle the congestion problem in recent TDM practices. Because of its special inherent performance to combat the congestion problem at specific time and period, transport professionals are become interested to introduce to their cities. For the fact that, study on the characteristics of congestion pricing is ever more demanding and playing an important role in entire process. Taking this into consideration, this paper analyzes and explores the characteristics of time based, distance based and area wide congestion pricing schemes by tiss-NET microscopic simulator. The hypothesis based algorithms were developed to conduct the simulation, and the function value of time from the developed algorithms has been estimated from route choice behavior model. State preference data has achieved to estimate the value of time for motorists. The simulation results show the effectiveness, impacts, and their characteristics on the congested imaginary road network.
In developing countries, poor geographical accessibility due to poor quality of roads and ineffective public facility locations has made a negative impact on rural residents' welfare. The lack of proper planning of these public infrastructures is also a major problem. The objective of this study is to investigate an integrated model to design an optimal rural road network considering financial and spatial constraints. The rural road network and new multi public facility locations are to be optimally designed simultaneously to achieve least total cost spent by government and residents. Having defined a specific objective and a set of constraints, an optimal rural road network configuration is determined endogenously by searching for an optimal combination value of the decision variables. The model is going to provide the decision makers with useful information of the rural infrastructure investment to explore the validity and effectiveness of capital allocation.
Urbanization and economic development today has cause many serious risks in transport projects. This paper aims to study risk in transport projects in Vietnam by phase of project on the view of the project manager. The list of 91 risks in transport project with its magnitude are built based on the interview survey. The relashionship between those 91 risks are identified and analysed to understand clearly about the causes and effects of the risks. The paper analysises and evaluates the current circumstance of risk management in transport projects nowadays. Based on that, measures for risk management are proposed to deal with the existing situation of complexity and uncontrollability of transport project management in Vietnam today. The paper has significant contribution in study and management of project risk for developing countries like Vietnam.
Public involvement has recently been introduced into the road planning process at the conceptual stage in Japan. However, there is a lack of agreed-upon evaluation methods for individual processes. It is very difficult for citizens to distinguish between the planning process evaluation and planning decision evaluation. This study developed a method for citizens' evaluation withdrawing items assessing procedure from other outcome items for road planning. A body of questions for citizens's evaluation was constructed and the residential questionnaire survey was conducted in Yokohama North-West Corridor, of which the public was involved in the development of the "rough plan". The feasibility of citizens' evaluation for planning process was discussed while examining the question items; the effects of respondent's attributes on perception were analyzed; the determinants of citizens' attitude to government and the participatory planning process were studied by performing regression analysis.
This article empirically analyzes production and cost efficiency changes in the Chunghwa Telecom Company (CHT Co.), before and after privatization. The input-orientation Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Cost-DEA were the research tools used in this study, and the findings showed that the efficiency performance has significantly improved after partial privatization. However: under this condition, the CHT is still restricted by some government policies and regulations that have resulted in its failure to achieve any significant improvement in its cost management. The government needs to eliminate its control and regulations in order to solve this problem. This will provide CHT with a completely privatized environment that will allow it to face a very competitive telecommunications industry.
This article provides a description of the influences of motorization trends on the urban residents travel patterns in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA) in the last decade. The performance of the first year of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system implementation, as a way to suppress the motorization in JMA, is also described. A comprehensive discussion of the existing problems and the possible future implications that can be applied in Indonesia and also in other developing countries are presented.
This paper investigates the vertical relationship between infrastructure provision and railway operations and evaluates the effects of privatization and deregulation on the firm-specific efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the Korean and Japanese railways. Using a stochastic frontier approach and a generalized translog functional form, the paper specifies the equation system consisting of a multiproduct variable cost function and input share equations which is estimated with the Zellner's iterative seemingly unrelated regression and the corrected least squares method. The empirical results indicate that there are cost complementarities between infrastructure provision and overall railway operations and cost anticomplementarities between incumbent passenger and freight outputs in the Korean railways, and between Shinkansen and incumbent passenger outputs in the Japanese railways. They also indicate that the firm-specific efficiencies and TFP growth rates of the privately-owned JRs are higher than those of the government-owned KNR and JNR.
This paper proposes a multi-class probit-based stochastic user equilibrium model for assessing the effects of multi-modal traveler information systems (MTIS) on a multi-modal transport network. It can be formulated as a fixed-point problem and solved by a simulation-based heuristic solution algorithm. It is assumed in this paper that the travelers equipped and unequipped with MTIS would make their travel choices following a probit-based stochastic manner when considering alternative paths or modes according to their perceived utilities. The proposed model and solution algorithm can be used to evaluate explicitly the impacts of MTIS services. Numerical results show that the introduction of MTIS would improve the network performance and promote the utilization of public transit under certain market penetration and congestion levels.
This article presents a performance index to the evaluation of shipping alliance competitiveness. The estimation program and solved by our performance index. Based on the output/input table for shipping alliances are derived, the input/output can be aggregated into the performance index for shipping alliance, by which each shipping alliance can classify his own competitiveness. The performance index can be further integrated into an overall performance indices, by which shipping alliances can classify their competitiveness ranking.
Sapporo, a major city in northern Japan, has an annual snowfall of over 5 metres and snow removal is a major civic concern. In this study, we analysed and compared various examples of road pricing projects around the world to ascertain their various characteristics. From these findings, we then imposed a hypothetical road pricing system in Sapporo, on the basis of providing revenue to help cover the city's winter road maintenance costs. We designed two different winter-time road pricing systems; a bounded cordon toll and a mileage charge. To get an indication of the acceptability of road pricing for the citizens, a survey was conducted. Findings indicate that residents would be willing to pay a minimal amount in support of road pricing and the bounded cordon toll as the preferable design. Residents residing within and around the cordon were also found to be and around the cordon were also found to be more sensitive to road pricing changes.
This paper develops a single-level optimization model to determine time-dependent optimal tolls while considering the dynamic relationships between land use, transport, and environment. To illustrate the importance of incorporating land use, transport, and environment considerations in determining time-dependent tolls, and the effect of tightening vehicular emission standards on link tolls, numerical studies are set up. The results show that the tighter the vehicular emission standards, the higher the toll charges are required, and that the vehicular emission standards have direct impacts on the overall vehicular emissions, the operational strategies and profit of public transit, the mode and route choices of travelers, the residential and employment distributions, the profits of land owners, and rents. The government should consider these impacts when determining the vehicular emission standard of each road.