Non-motorized public transport (NMPT), especially three-wheeler cycle rickshaws, has a long history in East Asia; and has long been a major transport planning issue. Policy measures to restrict or eliminate NMPT have already been implemented in many developing cities with mixed success. However given the economic, social and cultural significance of NMPT, its environmental benefits, and the magnitude of its role in sustaining the mobility needs of citizens, it is timely to reconsider the future role of NMPT. Rather than pursuing policies to eliminate NMPT, a better approach may be to integrate motorized and non-motorized vehicles as complementary rather than competitive forces. With this backdrop and given the international significance of the problem, this paper examines the current role and significance of NMPT using Dhaka as a case study, and sets a research agenda for the future of NMPT in a sustainable transport system.
This study developed a microscopic simulation evacuation model considering car-following behavior in flood situation using software AIMSUN. We formulated the relationship between car-following velocity and the depth of water. Moreover, a flood prediction model combining traffic analysis is conducted to catch up with the momentarily changed network because of the disaster. We also compare the effectives of different departure models of human behavior. They are exponential and simultaneous activities. The results indicate that the flood significantly affects the evacuation and that strategies promoting smooth evacuation activity are very important.
Urbanization in the Philippines is one of the fastest in the region, as its economy continues towards service and industrial orientation and away from rural agriculture leading to uncontrolled growth contributing to the deterioration of urban environment, like increasing traffic congestion. Similarly, local cities in the Philippines, and perhaps in Southeast Asia, do not have enough comprehension on transport planning theories, models and techniques in addressing this. Thus, capacity building of local government units is a critical element in the promotion of sustainable urban development. This paper utilize results of a survey in assessing the needs of local cities with the aim of illustrating a comprehensive and clear picture of the needs of cities in the area of enhancing capacity building in transport planning and traffic management.
People on the streets create a unique culture just by occupying its space. A user-centered design considers first and foremost the needs and behavior of these individuals as they utilize the street space. The paper examines street user behavior in Edo and colonial Manila. The historical context of street use provides potential constructs and concepts that would lead to improving street space. The premise is that due to a similar monsoon-based climate and forest environment origins, even with a contrasting development of street urban form, there is still an underlying similarity with respect to the use of street space in both Edo and Manila. In-depth discussion centers on the sociology of street space as well as street user behavior examining in detail group attributes, individual attributes and user groupings.
Motorization trend has been rising rapidly in many countries including Malaysia. But the level and trend of motorization in each country varies according to major factors such as population, size of the country, economic growth, income level, fuel cost and public policy on vehicle ownership. The level of motorization has both positive and negative impacts. On the positive side, it provides mobility from a landuse to another landuse to meet various purposes besides increasing trade related to transportation. On the negative side, it increases pressure on the environment by increasing more pollutants into the atmosphere causing global warming, traffic congestion, accidents and added pressure on the road and rail infrastructure in terms of capacity. Looking at the past trend of motorization, the future appears very bleak. This paper highlights trends and causes of motorization in the past, its likely impact on the environment and possible implications.
Tsunami wave up to twelve meters occurred on twenty sixth December flattened about eight hundred km stretch of Aceh coast and destroyed most of the existing residential, public buildings, paddy fields, fish ponds and the infrastructures within and surrounding the coastal areas. Around three thousand km road and hundred and twenty bridges have been recognised to be rebuilt. Thousands of road projects need to be implemented within the four years reconstruction period. Thus, most of the road developments have been focused on the repaving works rather than build new road alignments with better hierarchy, geometry and adequate road furniture. As the Government intends to implement the road safety audit on road project to provide safer roads, it was noted that the authority missed the opportunity to conduct the audit during the design stages.
This paper empirically identifies institutional spillover effects, i.e. the influence of one institution's actions, indirectly or unintentionally, on the actions of another institution, that resulted during the implementation of the Circumferential Road No. 3 construction project in Manila, Philippines which was funded by foreign aid. The paper shows an analysis of the mechanism of the effects, based on an examination of the behavioral process of the main actors - the donor, the recipient, the consulting company, and local organizations. First, the paper looked at the project purposes, processes, and outcomes based on relevant literature and interviews with local stakeholders. Then, focusing on a key event, institutional spillovers effects were identified. These spillover effects were examined through a process that identified the major actors, their motivations, available actions and strategies. Using a game-theoretic approach, the interactions that finally led to the amendment of policies for setting project bid-price were analyzed.
Livestock evacuation is considered as a response action, which can potentially minimize loss and impact on farming activities. Efforts in assessing the feasibility and logistics of livestock evacuation during disasters have been limited. This paper focuses in assessing livestock evacuation as part of emergency response actions following a major natural disaster. We present an assessment framework of livestock evacuation during major natural disasters. The assessment framework illustrates the extreme difficulty, if not impossibility inherent in evacuating the required number of dairy cows in an acceptable period of time. It is recommended that full livestock evacuation is not considered in future volcanic eruptions, especially large magnitude volcanic eruptions which deposit a significant amount of ash.
This paper considers the research undertaken by EASTS IRG SCAFT with regard to the application of superstatistics in transport and social networks. First, we briefly describe the background, the questions and challenges that initiate the research. Second, we suggest the first passage time of the complex social and transport network has superstatistical nature. Our approach suggests certain complex functional and hierarchical relations emerge within the social network from synchronization and cooperation. We traced the reason beyond such cooperation to the anisotropy nature of the first passage time of clear time scale gradient induced flow entities. Furthermore, we suggest the direction of this anisotropy may provide the most stable and reliable path to support interoperability principles required for proposed integration of global transport and urban systems. Finally, we look to the special role of the USA with regard to the semantics interoperability in such system.
The development of efficient national transport networks which has high quality is required. Also, we can not disregard the environmental load which is emitted by the national transport systems. In this study, the improvement of convenience and CO2 emission by the development of high mobility networks consisting of air, railway and road networks is analyzed in quantity from 1960 to 2000. The change in convenience of high mobility networks is analyzed using the generalized cost. And also, we calculated and analyzed the amount of CO2 emission by high mobility networks. Then, we compared the change of users benefit and the economical value of CO2 emission. In the comparison analysis between improvement of convenience and change in CO2 emission by development of high mobility networks, it is found that change of the economical value of CO2 emission is greatly smaller than that of users benefit.
In the infrastructure planning process, effective communication of information through media strategies is important in ensuring that the public is aware of and understands various infrastructure projects. To assess what media strategy is effective in involving the suburban residents of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in infrastructure planning, an opinion survey was conducted to estimate the Index of Reaching Information (IRI) between two groups of residents in the suburbs in northwest Chiba prefecture, namely "central business district (CBD) commuters" and "local workers." These groups represented two lifestyles, where the CBD commuters tend to spend only nighttimes and weekends in the suburbs. Of the ten media considered, television and national newspaper columns had the highest IRI. The local newspaper column was effective for local workers, while the Internet and advertising posters in trains were effective for CBD commuters. Circulars and city bulletins were effective for both groups.
Even in today's internet era, newspapers are still thought of as indispensable information sources and to strongly influence citizens' awareness and understanding of transportation infrastructure. Accordingly, it would be beneficial for citizens to obtain information on various transportation issues easily through newspapers. However, the issue has been little investigated in Japan. Therefore, this study sought to ascertain the current state of trend news reported, to create a suggested format for newspaper companies to report transportation issues, and to develop recommendations regarding how the government uses the medium of newspapers to disseminate transportation news. News articles related to transportation in a national newspaper, a regional newspaper, and an American newspaper were extracted and compared with regard to the number of articles published on transportation issues. As a result, few such articles were found. Thus, potential measures for newspaper companies and the government to increase dissemination through newspaper articles are discussed.
Travel behavior of elementary school children in the City of Bandung is dominated by long travel distance and the use of motorized mode. This is far from the normative criteria that elementary school facility can be reached within walking distance limit using non-motorized mode. The result of the study shows that travel distance that exceeds the walking distance limit is not influenced by the proximity to the elementary school facility, but rather it is influenced by the quality of the school. Furthermore, the motorized mode choice is influenced more by the level of vehicle ownership than urban form (accessibility level to the school facility). In addition, mode selection is also influenced more by the comfort of mode than urban form (road design and pedestrian facility). This indicates the influence of urban form is relatively small on the travel behavior of elementary school children.
This paper proposes a novel method to analyse decision making during extreme events. The method is based on Decision making Theory and aims at understanding how emergency managers make decisions during disasters. A data collection framework and an analysis method were conceptualized to capture participant s behaviour, perception and understanding throughout a game board simulation exercise, which emulates an earthquake disaster scenario affecting transport systems. The method evaluates the participant s actions in order to identify decision-making patterns, strengths and weaknesses. A set of case studies has shown two typical patterns, namely, Support immediate rescue, Support lifelines recovery. Good decision making practices regard to objective oriented decision making, understanding of conflicting priorities and appropriate resource management. Weaknesses are associated with comprehending relationships between community/environment and projecting future scenarios. Overall, the case study s results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method to analyse decision making during disasters.
The study is meant to simply evaluate the mode shift TDM operational strategies from selected alternatives, available for metropolitan cities in Indonesia. Jakarta would be selected as sample city, while it has been producing more than 20 million trips every day, concentrating at very small area of 20 km2 out of 656 km2.
Development of Busway, School Buses, Jakarta Staggered Working Hours and Road Pricing schemes would be elaborated, comparing with the current vehicle occupancy '3 in 1' policy. Selection of strategies would including transportation, financing and environmental aspects.
Travel time reliability has become an important factor in route choice analysis and is one of the key indicators for traffic performance measurement. Hence this study assessed the ten corridors of the Adelaide Metropolitan road network's travel time reliability by using the Buffer Time and Planning indices. The findings show that the Buffer Time indices for the selected corridors may significantly vary and for some corridors, they reach almost 100 per cent. Since the buffer time index seems to overestimate the travel time reliability measurement, a detailed assessment of the travel time distribution was also conducted. This analysis shows that none of the travel time distributions follow the normal distribution. However for some corridors the log normal distribution would fit the travel time distribution
This study mainly focuses on modeling problems of post-disaster stockpiles demand from victims and formulates a bi-level mathematical programming model. The upper level presents stockpiles distributor's problem, and the objective is to maximize each requester's least satisfaction (the ratio of collected quantity to anticipated distribution quantity). Relatively, the lower level presents requester's problem, and the objective is to maximize requester's satisfaction. To verify the feasibility, this study also setup a scenario with 5 cases and numerical experiment solved by simplex method which can serve as a helpful reference for the distributor to dispatch post-disaster stockpiles.