Non-motorized public transport (NMPT), especially three-wheeler cycle rickshaws, has a long history in East Asia; and has long been a major transport planning issue. Policy measures to restrict or eliminate NMPT have already been implemented in many developing cities with mixed success. However given the economic, social and cultural significance of NMPT, its environmental benefits, and the magnitude of its role in sustaining the mobility needs of citizens, it is timely to reconsider the future role of NMPT. Rather than pursuing policies to eliminate NMPT, a better approach may be to integrate motorized and non-motorized vehicles as complementary rather than competitive forces. With this backdrop and given the international significance of the problem, this paper examines the current role and significance of NMPT using Dhaka as a case study, and sets a research agenda for the future of NMPT in a sustainable transport system.
This study developed a microscopic simulation evacuation model considering car-following behavior in flood situation using software AIMSUN. We formulated the relationship between car-following velocity and the depth of water. Moreover, a flood prediction model combining traffic analysis is conducted to catch up with the momentarily changed network because of the disaster. We also compare the effectives of different departure models of human behavior. They are exponential and simultaneous activities. The results indicate that the flood significantly affects the evacuation and that strategies promoting smooth evacuation activity are very important.
Urbanization in the Philippines is one of the fastest in the region, as its economy continues towards service and industrial orientation and away from rural agriculture leading to uncontrolled growth contributing to the deterioration of urban environment, like increasing traffic congestion. Similarly, local cities in the Philippines, and perhaps in Southeast Asia, do not have enough comprehension on transport planning theories, models and techniques in addressing this. Thus, capacity building of local government units is a critical element in the promotion of sustainable urban development. This paper utilize results of a survey in assessing the needs of local cities with the aim of illustrating a comprehensive and clear picture of the needs of cities in the area of enhancing capacity building in transport planning and traffic management.
People on the streets create a unique culture just by occupying its space. A user-centered design considers first and foremost the needs and behavior of these individuals as they utilize the street space. The paper examines street user behavior in Edo and colonial Manila. The historical context of street use provides potential constructs and concepts that would lead to improving street space. The premise is that due to a similar monsoon-based climate and forest environment origins, even with a contrasting development of street urban form, there is still an underlying similarity with respect to the use of street space in both Edo and Manila. In-depth discussion centers on the sociology of street space as well as street user behavior examining in detail group attributes, individual attributes and user groupings.
Motorization trend has been rising rapidly in many countries including Malaysia. But the level and trend of motorization in each country varies according to major factors such as population, size of the country, economic growth, income level, fuel cost and public policy on vehicle ownership. The level of motorization has both positive and negative impacts. On the positive side, it provides mobility from a landuse to another landuse to meet various purposes besides increasing trade related to transportation. On the negative side, it increases pressure on the environment by increasing more pollutants into the atmosphere causing global warming, traffic congestion, accidents and added pressure on the road and rail infrastructure in terms of capacity. Looking at the past trend of motorization, the future appears very bleak. This paper highlights trends and causes of motorization in the past, its likely impact on the environment and possible implications.
Tsunami wave up to twelve meters occurred on twenty sixth December flattened about eight hundred km stretch of Aceh coast and destroyed most of the existing residential, public buildings, paddy fields, fish ponds and the infrastructures within and surrounding the coastal areas. Around three thousand km road and hundred and twenty bridges have been recognised to be rebuilt. Thousands of road projects need to be implemented within the four years reconstruction period. Thus, most of the road developments have been focused on the repaving works rather than build new road alignments with better hierarchy, geometry and adequate road furniture. As the Government intends to implement the road safety audit on road project to provide safer roads, it was noted that the authority missed the opportunity to conduct the audit during the design stages.
This paper empirically identifies institutional spillover effects, i.e. the influence of one institution's actions, indirectly or unintentionally, on the actions of another institution, that resulted during the implementation of the Circumferential Road No. 3 construction project in Manila, Philippines which was funded by foreign aid. The paper shows an analysis of the mechanism of the effects, based on an examination of the behavioral process of the main actors - the donor, the recipient, the consulting company, and local organizations. First, the paper looked at the project purposes, processes, and outcomes based on relevant literature and interviews with local stakeholders. Then, focusing on a key event, institutional spillovers effects were identified. These spillover effects were examined through a process that identified the major actors, their motivations, available actions and strategies. Using a game-theoretic approach, the interactions that finally led to the amendment of policies for setting project bid-price were analyzed.
Livestock evacuation is considered as a response action, which can potentially minimize loss and impact on farming activities. Efforts in assessing the feasibility and logistics of livestock evacuation during disasters have been limited. This paper focuses in assessing livestock evacuation as part of emergency response actions following a major natural disaster. We present an assessment framework of livestock evacuation during major natural disasters. The assessment framework illustrates the extreme difficulty, if not impossibility inherent in evacuating the required number of dairy cows in an acceptable period of time. It is recommended that full livestock evacuation is not considered in future volcanic eruptions, especially large magnitude volcanic eruptions which deposit a significant amount of ash.
This paper considers the research undertaken by EASTS IRG SCAFT with regard to the application of superstatistics in transport and social networks. First, we briefly describe the background, the questions and challenges that initiate the research. Second, we suggest the first passage time of the complex social and transport network has superstatistical nature. Our approach suggests certain complex functional and hierarchical relations emerge within the social network from synchronization and cooperation. We traced the reason beyond such cooperation to the anisotropy nature of the first passage time of clear time scale gradient induced flow entities. Furthermore, we suggest the direction of this anisotropy may provide the most stable and reliable path to support interoperability principles required for proposed integration of global transport and urban systems. Finally, we look to the special role of the USA with regard to the semantics interoperability in such system.
The development of efficient national transport networks which has high quality is required. Also, we can not disregard the environmental load which is emitted by the national transport systems. In this study, the improvement of convenience and CO2 emission by the development of high mobility networks consisting of air, railway and road networks is analyzed in quantity from 1960 to 2000. The change in convenience of high mobility networks is analyzed using the generalized cost. And also, we calculated and analyzed the amount of CO2 emission by high mobility networks. Then, we compared the change of users benefit and the economical value of CO2 emission. In the comparison analysis between improvement of convenience and change in CO2 emission by development of high mobility networks, it is found that change of the economical value of CO2 emission is greatly smaller than that of users benefit.
In the infrastructure planning process, effective communication of information through media strategies is important in ensuring that the public is aware of and understands various infrastructure projects. To assess what media strategy is effective in involving the suburban residents of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in infrastructure planning, an opinion survey was conducted to estimate the Index of Reaching Information (IRI) between two groups of residents in the suburbs in northwest Chiba prefecture, namely "central business district (CBD) commuters" and "local workers." These groups represented two lifestyles, where the CBD commuters tend to spend only nighttimes and weekends in the suburbs. Of the ten media considered, television and national newspaper columns had the highest IRI. The local newspaper column was effective for local workers, while the Internet and advertising posters in trains were effective for CBD commuters. Circulars and city bulletins were effective for both groups.
Even in today's internet era, newspapers are still thought of as indispensable information sources and to strongly influence citizens' awareness and understanding of transportation infrastructure. Accordingly, it would be beneficial for citizens to obtain information on various transportation issues easily through newspapers. However, the issue has been little investigated in Japan. Therefore, this study sought to ascertain the current state of trend news reported, to create a suggested format for newspaper companies to report transportation issues, and to develop recommendations regarding how the government uses the medium of newspapers to disseminate transportation news. News articles related to transportation in a national newspaper, a regional newspaper, and an American newspaper were extracted and compared with regard to the number of articles published on transportation issues. As a result, few such articles were found. Thus, potential measures for newspaper companies and the government to increase dissemination through newspaper articles are discussed.
Travel behavior of elementary school children in the City of Bandung is dominated by long travel distance and the use of motorized mode. This is far from the normative criteria that elementary school facility can be reached within walking distance limit using non-motorized mode. The result of the study shows that travel distance that exceeds the walking distance limit is not influenced by the proximity to the elementary school facility, but rather it is influenced by the quality of the school. Furthermore, the motorized mode choice is influenced more by the level of vehicle ownership than urban form (accessibility level to the school facility). In addition, mode selection is also influenced more by the comfort of mode than urban form (road design and pedestrian facility). This indicates the influence of urban form is relatively small on the travel behavior of elementary school children.
This paper proposes a novel method to analyse decision making during extreme events. The method is based on Decision making Theory and aims at understanding how emergency managers make decisions during disasters. A data collection framework and an analysis method were conceptualized to capture participant s behaviour, perception and understanding throughout a game board simulation exercise, which emulates an earthquake disaster scenario affecting transport systems. The method evaluates the participant s actions in order to identify decision-making patterns, strengths and weaknesses. A set of case studies has shown two typical patterns, namely, Support immediate rescue, Support lifelines recovery. Good decision making practices regard to objective oriented decision making, understanding of conflicting priorities and appropriate resource management. Weaknesses are associated with comprehending relationships between community/environment and projecting future scenarios. Overall, the case study s results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method to analyse decision making during disasters.
The study is meant to simply evaluate the mode shift TDM operational strategies from selected alternatives, available for metropolitan cities in Indonesia. Jakarta would be selected as sample city, while it has been producing more than 20 million trips every day, concentrating at very small area of 20 km2 out of 656 km2.
Development of Busway, School Buses, Jakarta Staggered Working Hours and Road Pricing schemes would be elaborated, comparing with the current vehicle occupancy '3 in 1' policy. Selection of strategies would including transportation, financing and environmental aspects.
Travel time reliability has become an important factor in route choice analysis and is one of the key indicators for traffic performance measurement. Hence this study assessed the ten corridors of the Adelaide Metropolitan road network's travel time reliability by using the Buffer Time and Planning indices. The findings show that the Buffer Time indices for the selected corridors may significantly vary and for some corridors, they reach almost 100 per cent. Since the buffer time index seems to overestimate the travel time reliability measurement, a detailed assessment of the travel time distribution was also conducted. This analysis shows that none of the travel time distributions follow the normal distribution. However for some corridors the log normal distribution would fit the travel time distribution
This study mainly focuses on modeling problems of post-disaster stockpiles demand from victims and formulates a bi-level mathematical programming model. The upper level presents stockpiles distributor's problem, and the objective is to maximize each requester's least satisfaction (the ratio of collected quantity to anticipated distribution quantity). Relatively, the lower level presents requester's problem, and the objective is to maximize requester's satisfaction. To verify the feasibility, this study also setup a scenario with 5 cases and numerical experiment solved by simplex method which can serve as a helpful reference for the distributor to dispatch post-disaster stockpiles.
Mining industries were one of main sectors that played key roles in the process of Japanese industrialization. Ashio copper mine was one of representatives from Japanese mines for the large amount of products and for early challenges for injurious from mining. The paper deals with transition of transportation infrastructures and their roles for formulating the mining town in order to assess historical heritages related to transportation facilities in Ashio copper mine. Next to giving the brief preview of Ashio copper mine, Historical reviews of introducing new transportation technologies and of developing transportation network are described. Influences of transportation infrastructures on functional and areal transition of production bases through the period, when the special structure has been constructed are discussed. Based on above mentioned reviews, Aspects of assessing historical transportation heritages are proposed.
To evaluate pro-poor growth policy we assessed the applicability of several poverty measurement methods. We selected and applied the methods for evaluating transport infrastructure development in Indonesia during the transition period of governance reforms and decentralization. We used mobility as non-income poverty indicators in 1995, 2000 and 2005 to rank level of compliance with pro-poor growth policy. Surprisingly, we found that each method produced different ranking. In general, during the transition period from 1996 to 2005, the transport infrastructure development in Indonesia was comply with pro-poor growth policy. However, from 2000 to 2005 the growth become anti-poor. We conclude that individual measurement method is insufficient to evaluate pro-poor growth policy. Therefore, a robust and comprehensive measurement tool is needed. The tool will enable us to maintain the appropriate distribution of development benefit to the poor and the rich.
The objective of this study was to determine the potential for reductions in carbon-dioxide
emissions in Indonesia by substituting high volumes of fly ash in concrete production and to
identify the resulting benefits and challenges. From literature, it is known that fly ash can
improve the properties of both the fresh and hardened concrete. High-volume fly ash (HVFA)
can further improve workability, heat of hydration, strength, permeability, and resistance to
chemical attack. From a power plant located in East Java, it is determined that tons of fly ash are
produced annually and about 40 percent are generally sold for use in concrete or other end
Vessel attacking and hijacking by pirate of Somalia and ransom demanded and paid by owners drastically happened and at a peak in 2007, continuously happened in 2008 and 2009. The paper is to deal with ransom only that is the most cases concluded with. We discuss the coverage by insurance as well as the contribution by General Average.
For roadway users, the tunnel sections are the potential bottlenecks of highways. In Taiwan, the NH-5 highway with three tunnels was opened to traffic in June 2006. Based on the detector data, this study examined the spatial and temporal variations of capacity, free-flow speed, and speed-flow relationship. And, the two-lane capacities of Shi-Ting, Pern-San and Shea-San tunnels are of approximately 3,850, 3,300 and 2,950 pcph near the southbound exit and 3,200, 3,200 and 2,500 pcph at the northbound exit. These capacities are low by freeway standards, and it also reveals the capacity becomes lower while the tunnel is longer.
This study focuses on understanding the life of formal and informal public transport providers as employed in the transport sector in the Philippines. Public transport service provision is one of the major sources of livelihood and employment in many cities of developing nations. This paper provides a comparison on the difference between public transport service as an employment sector, an occupation and business opportunity. Using the formal-informal classification of public transport modes, the study provides a comparison on public transport service by understanding the operators, owners and/or drivers - as an occupation including labor characteristics and the management and operating systems and as an employment sector in general.
In recent years, as the trade quantities are increasing in East Asian region and the interdependent relation has strengthened. For the seamless flow of the people, goods and information, the transportation network such as the East Asian one day return business zone, the next day freight delivery and etc. has been urged to strengthen, and is required for sustainable economical development. For the sustainable and balanced regional growth, it is necessary to coordinate with related countries, which can lead strengthening international competitiveness and correcting regional disparities. As the first step for this, the research activities such as to develop spatial indicators, to analysis development trends and to show visually the research results, are helping understand of East Asian region and each country's situation. In this report several maps are created using the existing statistical data, and could be discovered some tasks to set up East Asian Spatial Data Infrastructure.
GERBANGERTOSUSILA (GKS) Zone in East Java Province is the second largest economic sphere in Indonesia. In GKS, a large urban area extends from the city of Surabaya to the surrounding Kabupatens (regencies), and it is particularly called the Surabaya metropolitan area. While the overall objective of the Study is to formulate the Spatial Plan for GKS, this paper presents the Study approach for ongoing work of developing urban transportation action plans for the Surabaya metropolitan area. The transportation demand forecast model in this Study benefits from a wide variety of surveys that are conducted including a commuter survey, a road traffic survey, a trip diary survey, a travel speed survey, and an opinion survey, enabling the model to include not only improvement of the road and public transport systems but also analysis of traffic demand management policies. Preliminary results of those surveys will also be included in the presentation.
Although China, Japan and Korea all locate in the Northeast region of Asia, there is no integrated land transport network till now which impedes the development of the nations and the region. In order to solve this problem, South Korea tried to connect the North Korea's railway and highway system to reach the Eurasia. But this plan encountered many difficulties, so a new plan of building an undersea tunnel to connect China, Korea and Japan has been put forward recently. By analyzing and comparing the former plan with the new undersea tunnel plan, this study surveys the feasibility of the undersea tunnel plan and does further analysis on the constraint factors and the predicted effects of the undersea tunnel network in Northeast Asia.
The importance of traffic data has become more important than ever. However, the quality of data has to be considered because it leads to the basis of transport modeling. Error in data could create errors in the model and will guide to the wrong decitions and invesments in transport sector.
This study attempts to develop a procedure by which the quality of the traffic data can be assessed. In this case also, the plausibility of count station which relates to the traffic flow from traffic census can be determined. The basic method used, is propagation of measured values, which is implemented in the traffic planning Software VISUM. From the method implementation, it is proven that this plausibility based model is suitable to check the plausibility of traffic census.
For a discussion on a future vision of international transport infrastructure and forecast on future trade and cargo demand, predicted figures for variables in socio-economics and infrastructure should be given as prerequisites. They will be simply estimated by extrapolation of past trends or based somewhat on econometric methodology. However, these figures may be very uncertain and difficult to estimate, especially in long-term forecasting with large changes over time. In this paper, a questionnaire survey was conducted targeting many experts based on the Delphi method which seeks to consolidate expert opinions by repeating questions to the same respondents. The most probable future scenario for international economics in East Asia was summarized in order to contribute to the discussion on the direction they will take in the future and how they ought to be.
Angkot, the acronym of Angkutan Kota, is the main mode of urban public transport in Banyuwangi, as well as other local cities of Indonesia. However, Angkot is failing to provide the necessary service and is actually in decline in Banyuwangi. This paper intends to explore the characteristics of Angkot and analyze their performance in Banyuwangi. Analysis based on questionnaires and literature shows that 1. main users are relative poor people and students, 2. Angkot fleets are old, 3. service level becomes lower, and 4. a driver's gross income per day is in the range of Rp. 65,000 to Rp.187,000. These results suggest that financial support is needed to renew Angkot vehicles and governments should formulate proper policies and carry them out in order to improve the Angkot transport system in Banyuwangi City.
For a discussion on a future vision of international transport infrastructure and forecast on future trade and cargo demand, predicted figures for variables in socio-economics and infrastructure should be given as prerequisites. They will be simply estimated by extrapolation of past trends or based somewhat on econometric methodology. However, these figures may be very uncertain and difficult to estimate, especially in long-term forecasting with large changes over time. In this paper, following Yoshida et al. (2009a) discussing on future scenario of international economics, a questionnaire survey was conducted in the international transport field targeting many experts based on the Delphi method which seeks to consolidate expert opinions by repeating questions to the same respondents. The most probable future scenario for international transport in East Asia was summarized in order to contribute to the discussion on the direction they will take in the future and how they ought to be.
Mud eruption in Porong, 40 km South of Surabaya frequently submerged existing railway track. Government of Indonesia planed to relocate the track to the safer route. Initial route positioned at 2.2 km. west of the eruption centre, while the distance of the revised route to the eruption centre is 8 km. Construction of railways at existing defunct railway track Sidoarjo-Tarik and some facilities had been done in 2008 while the next 18 km targeted for 2010 still need land acquisition.
When arriving at a busy port, a container ship usually need to queue in anchorage waiting for a berth. If the port establishes a toll scheme during the queuing period, container ships' arrival times at the port will be dispersed, and the queuing situation can be decreased. In this paper an optimal step toll scheme to container ships is designed, and all values of equilibrium queuing costs, equilibrium derivative costs due to queuing, and in patterns of arrival time change under the optimal step toll scheme are obtained. According to these equilibrium results, this paper shows container ships that pay the toll to berth a queuing port are those altered their original arrival times at the port before the toll was established. In addition, container ships' arrival time change decisions from the non-toll to the optimal step toll cases can be predicted before tolling a queuing port.
This paper develops the optimal step toll scheme which is levied to bulk carriers for a queuing port. Arrival times of bulk carriers at the port will be rationally dispersed after pricing this toll scheme. Consequently, the queuing time at the anchorage to all bulk carriers will be rationally decreased. This paper also shows decisions of arrival time changes made by bulk carrier owners under the optimal step toll scheme. Based on these results, we find some bulk carriers that paid no toll under the optimal step toll scheme maintain the same arrival times at the anchorage as they did in the original non-toll equilibrium situation. New arrival times at the anchorage for other bulk carriers that paid the optimal step toll are postponed when compared with their original arrival times in the non-toll equilibrium situation.
Sustainability is a hot topic nowadays because there is growing awareness of human activities including transport activities that can have significant environmental impacts and can impose economic, social and ecological damages. It is therefore important to consider sustainability into network design to reduce the negative impacts of transport activities. This paper develops a multi-objective time-dependent network design model to consider the economic, social and ecological dimensions of sustainability. Land-use transport interaction over time is also captured to study the effect of network design on landowners. The variances of discounted landowner profit and discounted user generalized cost are proposed as indicators of two sustainability issues, namely landowner inequity and intergeneration inequity respectively. Numerical studies are set up to illustrate the properties of the problem. In particular, the result shows that it may not be possible to simultaneously optimize all sustainability objectives. Tradeoffs must be carefully made between these objectives.
Sustainable cities are those where journey-to-work trip lengths (and their ecological footprints) are stabilizing or decreasing. The control of residential and employment locations are two appropriate policy instruments. As the journey-to-work trip length depends both on urban structure and travel behavior, a mathematical model based on the optimal commuting assignment problem is proposed to test different policy scenarios. This model is based on behavioral zonal travel preference functions. The preference functions are transformed into quadratic functions using data for the journey to work in the major four cities of Hokkaido, Japan. The optimization model is applied to estimate mean trip lengths from different hypothetical zonal distributions of residences and employment.
The robust development of global economics and trading activities results in rapid growth in the shipping industry recently. However, the production of vessels is increasing faster than the numbers of available seafarers. From the viewpoint of economics, this paper focuses on analyzing employment costs of seafarers, including the differences between domestic and foreign seafarers, and, further, comparing the level of variations in employment costs. The results revealed that shipping companies can save up to 50.4% costs per vessel annually in Taiwan by employing foreign seafarers. In the variations of seafarers' employment costs, both domestic and foreign seafarers' in 2008 presented an upward trend, 31.30% and 58.43% respectively, and their annual growth rate 5.22% and 9.74%. This paper will be helpful for shipping companies in examining strategies for employing seafarers and can serve as a good reference for government agencies involved in the education of seafarers.
This study aims to build the concept of QOM (Quality of Mobility), and to suggest a useful method for evaluating QOM among regions by an index. We propose the model in which QOM is evaluated by Capability approach, which has been put forword by Amartya Sen. In addition, QOM at present and in the future was analyzed in Yamaga City. As a result, the transportation service level in this city will decrease and the inequality will expand in the future. Therefore, some policies were prepared, and evaluated. As a result, we propose a policy based on persuading people to live in the city center and improving main roads.
The problem of congestion in Indonesia is dealt with supply approach through the addition of new road network. This approach is no longer relevant after the emergence of TDM concept as a strategy to modifying trip demand. The implementation of TDM strategy in Indonesia is still rare. The importance of TDM, therefore, should be viewed on the effectiveness of TDM strategy in dealing with transportation problems in Indonesian cities. The result of the study shows that the level of effectiveness of the implementation of TDM strategy in Indonesia is influenced by the level of public acceptance, level of policy, level of combination of various TDM strategies, level of trip users who are the target of TDM strategy policy, and level of promotion and education for the implementation of the TDM strategy.
Road pricing from an economic point of view has largely been motivated by the time costs that each road user imposes on other road users imposes on other road users, since the classical discussion of external costs by Pigou. In this paper, a model is proposed considering local traffic emissions and illustrated with hypothetical network. Davidson time-flow function and vehicle speed emission factor relationship is considered. Optimum road pricings of both optimum and descriptive approaches are compared. The optimum approach can be applied to most of the situations when speeds are below 70 kmph on selected locations. At speeds above 70 kmph, there may be considerable difference between both the approaches and may be used appropriately. The accuracy of the emission factor curves has influence on actual tolls.
This paper first introduces the concept and the status quo of Multinational Operators for Local Transport Services (MOLTS) such as Arriva, Keolis, Transdev, and Veolia Transport, operating independent public transport systems in a number of countries. Their operation in the European context, including American and Oceanic, is encouraged by four motivations; their business model itself as "Low-Risk Low-Profit Business with Authorities", size and nature of the MOLTS, legislative unity to allow the "low-risk low-profit business with authorities", and specialized feature of the MOLTS for tram. Thereafter, the Asian context is analyzed, in which the MOLTS focuses on the development of the new urban railway network. The "Low-risk Low-profit Business with Authorities" foundation is not established overall, yet it is possible in some regions. Specialized features are appearing in railway operations in Asia.
This paper takes advantage of a GA based Bi-Level Programming Problem to find the optimal scheme of second-best road pricing problem, the method optimizes locations and toll levels simultaneously. The highlight of this paper is that the case study was taken on the actual network of Nagoya Metropolitan Area instead of a numeral network, in order to evaluate the effect of the method, we made comparison between a cordon pricing scheme and the same number of links tolled optimal locations and toll levels schemes. The result showed that under the situation of the same number of links, the optimal locations and toll levels scheme works better than the cordon pricing one.
This paper introduces a system-wide spatial impact analysis of two modes of financing of land transport infrastructure in the Philippines with different reallocative effects -(1) foreign transfers as in official development assistance funds and (2) value-added tax on transport services. These two financing modes are alternatively used to fund an equal amount of land transport infrastructure improvement across five different Philippine regions.The effect of each financing scheme will be analyzed per regional transport mode , per regional production sector; and per regional household income group . A spatial computable general equilibrium model is used to estimate the values of production and welfare after an exogenous financing shock is introduced . Results show that value-added tax has greater impact on regional output and regional welfare than foreign transfers.
Charging for the use of infrastructure facilities such as toll roads consequently prices out potential users whose willingness-to-pay is exceeded by the toll fees that are charged. This means that economic gains, such as travel time and vehicle operating cost savings, may not be realized for those who have been priced-out. The reduction in the number of users also affects the cost-recovery aspect which is part of the project's financial viability, from the private sector viewpoint. A decision framework is proposed in this paper, which showed that, from a total-project standpoint, a PPP arrangement was not viable for a proposed Calamba-Los Banos bypass road project. While only a test application, this demonstrated that a joint analysis of economic viability of the project and financial viability for the private proponent is needed to determine if PPP arrangements are suitable within Philippine conditions.
Restraining the increasing pace of car ownership rate in developing cities is a major policy concern. Car ownership modeling can potentially generate important policy insights for formulating urban transport strategies. The effectiveness of higher urban density to discourage car ownership has long been debated, but the established modeling streams rarely include urban density as possible policy leverage. This paper first discusses the cross-sectional patterns of car ownership and some common reinforcing feedback loops involving car ownership, and set a hypothesis on policy relevance of urban density. A modified model formulation that include urban density in a policy relevant way is proposed, and validated through estimation. Utilizing the estimated parameters, maximum income elasticity of car ownership is computed, which corresponds at a per capita income level of about US dollar 4000 (in 1996 price). This figure may provide useful guidance to policy makers as the take-off stage for motorization.
Unstable external funding sources for large-scale transport infrastructure prompts many East Asian countries to strengthen capacity in self-financing transport investments. This paper aims to evaluate if earmarking of road-related tax revenues for transport investments answers the need of developing countries to fund needed infrastructure to sustain economic growth. Funding issues relevant to the need for a long-term funding instrument, and the current structure of road-related taxes are presented to build empirical contexts of the potential of linking tax revenues and transport investment needs. Some lessons from long run transport funds in Japan and the US are also presented to articulate the idea of earmarking. Finally, we propose a dynamic framework illustrating vicious cycle of funding gap in transport affecting growth potential. In the structure, we propose a transport earmarking financed by transport-related tax showing its effectiveness breaking the vicious cycle in funding infrastructure in developing EA countries.
Private Participation in Infrastructure is a concept which involves the public and the private sectors working in cooperation and partnership to provide infrastructure and public services. The purpose of this study is to propose the Revenue-Beta Model of obtaining a financial discount rate for PPI projects, especially road-related projects implemented by a BTO scheme with the following assumption: The Korean government can be considered as a risk-averse investor that can build a portfolio with each toll plaza on the Korean expressways. The most significant issue in this research is whether it is reasonable and practical to apply the Capital Asset Pricing Model to get an appropriate financial discount rate for PPI projects. As an example, the model is applied to a real BTO project: the CN Expressway project.
Following the intensive Jabodetabek (Jakarta Metropolitan Area) origin-destination data from Bappenas-JICA, this paper reviews the impact of road pricing schemes located in the city center of trip attraction, using multi class assignment model. Focusing on an area section located in the center part of Jakarta, the paper analyzes cordon pricing and its impact to wide Jakarta network using route choice model. The impact to public transport busway services serving the area of pricing would also be estimated.
Capacity analysis for local roads in Malaysia has always been carried out using manuals from other countries. These methods include the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 13/87, the U.S. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000) and aaSIDRA. However, in 2006, the Ministry of Works Malaysia introduced Malaysia very own Malaysian Highway Capacity Manual (MHCM 2006) with hopes that a more accurate outcome will be the result from the usage of this manual. This paper discusses the comparison done to compare the results from the four manuals above with the actual situation on-site. The outcome of the study shows that from all four manuals, the MHCM 2006 gives the result closest to what was obtained on-site.
Consider a region of an arbitrary shape with multiple Central Business Districts (CBDs) competing for multi-class users that are distributed continuously over the region. Within this region, the road network is represented as a continuum and users patronize in a two-dimensional continuum transportation system to travel to their chosen CBD. A logit-type distribution function is specified to model the probabilistic destination choices made by the different classes of users. In this paper, a cordon-based congestion-pricing model for this continuum network is developed and the optimal location and toll level of the charging cordon is selected based on the equity, acceptability and social benefit of the charging schemes. The cordon-based congestion-pricing model is solved by using the finite element method and a promising Newtonian-based solution algorithm. A numerical example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed model, algorithm and criteria for cordon design and selection.
This paper attempts to test empirically whether a five percent additional capital infusion to land transport services sector in the National Capital Region reinforces center-periphery spatial configuration in a developing economy like the Philippines. The study captures the impact of such capacity build-up in terms of changes in interregional flows, regional welfare and output. The financing of such transport capacity enhancement is through an equivalent amount of government expenditure which is funded by foreign transfer payments like official development assistance funds. A transport-oriented spatial general equilibrium model is presented based on a five region social accounting matrix. Results indicate that while absolute gains in welfare and output still go to National Capital Region, the enhanced interregional flow of goods and services creates significant spillover effects in periphery regions which are located in Southern Philippines namely, Visayas and Mindanao.