The flood caused by typhoon Morakot resulted in mass fatalities, prompting demands for improving coping capacities to extreme climate events. The capacity improvement must involve determining and relieving socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Along with resource allocation and pre-evacuation, transportation systems play a crucial role during the disaster response and recovery. Highway bridges significantly impact the network accessibility. However, previous literature focused on the physical vulnerability of bridges from the engineering or disaster-loss assessment perspective. This study thus examines the disaster risk of bridge failure from a vulnerability perspective. 11 vulnerable factors are generated by impact chain and evaluated via geographic information system. The results reveal that accessibility and redundancy remarkably affect vulnerability and risk. The risk maps help decision-maker understand the vulnerability and adopt appropriate strategies for reducing disaster risk.
In the last few years,International research group,IRG SCAFT has developed a superstatistical based integration framework in which the principle of Ever-Advancing Civilization mediates the synchronized and cooperative strategies of globally integrated transport and urban systems through the introduction of an optimally integrated network of Humanitarian Hubs and cluster merging process of local populations.As a part of ongoing IRG research,we seek to answer two further formidable challenges encountered as we continue to develop the common integrated framework of transport and urban systems, namely the existence and nature of eigenvalues required for dimensional calculations of Humanitarian Hubs,and secondly,the social capital exergy based core logistic activities required for cluster merging processes. Finally,we suggest the spiral growth pattern for the cluster merging process and Humanitarian Hub integration process as another manifestation of First Passage Time Anisotropy.
This paper analyzes patient choice of health service facilities, using empirical data collected through a survey conducted in rural areas of Sri Lanka. The hospital choice model takes into account disease types and transportation modal choice. The results show that the accessibility of patients to the medical care services and the level-of-service of hospitals impact the choice of hospital significantly. The results also unveil the relationships between living conditions and diseases, for example, that the unavailability of water increase the possibility that long-term critical diseases will occur. Additionally, they show that the value of travel time in accessing health services is much higher than the average wage level. Finally the paper presents the policy implications that the accessibility as well as the service quality of hospitals should be highlighted more in medical service planning in addition to the free medical service.
In the wake of the devastating 2004 tsunami, a number of researches shifted their focus to disaster prevention, management and alleviation strategies. Most studies developed their plans through reviewing and modeling the characteristics of the great tidal wave. This study from Phuket Island, nonetheless, investigated the other side of the subject from the evacuees perspective. Route choice decision and its governing factors were determined. Their relationship to socioeconomic characteristics of local residents and foreign tourists were analyzed and quantified using a three-way contingency table technique. The study found an astonishing fact of an insignificant role of evacuation signage in guiding the evacuation route, as compared to individual instinct and the crowd reaction. The conclusion of the study would be the first step to help understand the crowd behavior and to help establish an effective evacuation measures under this specific emergency situation.
This paper proposes an integrated scenario tree model that incorporates recurrent congestion conditions and sporadic disasters into a stochastic degradable road network design problem (SDNDP). The traffic pattern of the stochastic degradable network (SDN) under the recurrent congestion condition is evaluated by probit-based stochastic user equilibrium (called SDN-SUE), whereas the system optimum is used to assess the traffic pattern of the SDN under the sporadic disaster (called SDN-SO). The proposed model determines optimal link capacity expansions that minimize the sum of the total network travel time costs of all recurrent congestion conditions plus the total investment cost subject to the desired total network travel time constraint for evacuation purpose and the SDN-SUE and SDN-SO conditions. A solution algorithm is also developed for solving the SDNDP. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the potential pitfall in considering the network improvement policies separately and to show the benefit from the integrated model.
The Trade and Transport Information Database for the Lower Mekong Riparian Countries is a goe-spatial database of which main components are 1) general information of border cities in the lower Mekong riparian countries 2) cross-border trade information including border checkpoints and boundary 3) cross-border trade and transportation statistics 4) the transport network linking the riparian countries. The Google Earth program is applied for the display of the database on the couputer screen.
The result database can be visualized in both graphic and descriptive form. Hence it is quite an effcient tool for planning and analysis of trade and transportation. Moreover, the database will serve as basis for further development to more extensively cover the cross-border trade and transport between Thailand and all her nieghboring countries.
Rubble disposal is one of the most important issues for urban restoration after an earthquake disaster. A detailed management plan is required to deal with the rubble generated, especially by a large-scale earthquake, in order to avoid undesirable effects such as traffic congestion and safety issues. This paper proposes an IT based logistics system to manage the disposal of rubble. A specific management plan is suggested for the area of Koto-Delta region, Tokyo. The plan includes an operation procedure, specifying locations of stock yards for rubble disposal. A simulation is used to estimate selected air quality impacts caused by the operation.
This paper is part of a research paper series which focuses on parking organisation in urban environment. It contains a review of the off-street residential parking organisation practises in 6 cities around the world namely Bangkok, Hong Kong, London, Singapore, Tokyo and Vienna. It consists a finding that the Minimum parking space provision requirement standard is used in most cities except London. Variation in parking policies and regulations can be observed, together with different innovative measures and parking standard adjustment methods. A study to compare number of parking spaces required by different standards is carried out. This paper contains recommendation that further research in other elements of parking organisation such as residential on-street parking or destination on and off-street parking organisation should be carried out. Parking organisation is an effective push measure to drive the current transport system towards sustainability
This paper examines the role of indigenous transport as a potential component of the transport system in the drive towards climate change adaptation, to complement mitigation, especially in developing countries in Asia. The rampant presence of indigenous transport in Asian city streets, either formally or informally, reflects the demand for the mode as well as its important role in the overall transport system. It becomes imperative to understand their role, function and the use of indigenous transport modes within the whole transport network, specifically in the public transport realm, to be able to draw an overall portrait of the potential of indigenous modes to supplement, complement or compete within the transport system. At the same time, the paper hopes to contribute policy-relevant insights to better understand the role of indigenous transport in climate change adaptation
The assessment of road performance in Indonesia so far is only based on the assessment of ratio between the volumes of traffic that crosses a road section with the capacity of roads in its path. This road network performance assessment is an appraisal system that is written in the Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM) issued in 1997, which the substances are mostly adopted from Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). In fact, this HCM basically has different characteristics of transportation, especially in terms of the composition of traffic, the level of side friction, and driver behavior. The survey and analysis that has been done at 35 roads in the city of Medan found the significant differences between travel times based on IHCM with actual travel time. Thus, based on this survey it is argued that MKJI are no longer suitable to be used as the assessment of current road performance.