In Japan, the number of abandoned domestic air routes has been increased after the aviation market deregulation especially in regional air route with less passenger demand. Some of the local governments have started their own subsidy schemes and also the central government is now considering new support scheme for sustainable regional air network. As a fundamental study for considering the effect of maintain a direct regional air route and the criteria for the subsidy, this study examines the actual changes in inter-regional passenger volume and route choice behaviors after abandoning the direct domestic regional air route in Japan. By developing the air route choice model based on the aggregate logit model, the factors which affect passengers’ air route choice behaviors and the relationship between the change in the generalized travel cost and the change in the inter-regional passenger volume are discussed.
This research studies on the social influences and public perception to aviation accidents and airlines. When an accident happens, the media usually exaggerates the consequences and people may worry about airline safety management, resulting in loss of passengers and social panic. We selected the TransAsia Airways GE222 Accident in Taiwan, which occurred on July 23, 2014 as a study case, and adopted event study method to observe stock price fluctuation and to find the relationship with the media index. Moreover, an online survey was conducted for Taiwanese people to investigate their perception about the airline considering different cases, but there was the GE235 Accident happened during our survey, so after hypotheses testing, the results show that respondents who participated in the survey before and after the GE235 Accident, are significantly different because the latter witnessed an accident again, their image, safety perception, trust and willingness to use are strongly affected.
This paper discusses several approaches to measure the connectivity of maritime transport. The graph theory-based approach, which is infrequently appeared in maritime transport literature, is firstly explored. However, since the graph theory does not take into consideration distance, cost or other obstacles, this paper thus presents the gravity-like model that considers the potential and impedance properties of maritime transport components. To get more comprehensive result relating to the connectivity index, the modified Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (LSCI) is proposed by changing the perspective of analysis as well as the key components to fit with domestic maritime transport. The application of methods is then demonstrated to the actual maritime transport network in Indonesia. As different with the similar work on the connectivity index for maritime transport that mainly takes into account the freight transport perspective, this paper also gives attention on the passenger perspective by pointing out the pioneer shipping.
Runway pavements receive three different thermal loads; those are solar radiation, tire friction and jet engine exhaust. These three thermal loads have different characteristics of heat transfer conduction. The steady and time-dependent heat transfer control the temperature fluctuation in pavement layers. This temperature fluctuation may cause asphalt hardening and lead to premature pavement functional distress. This paper's aim is to evaluate the available numerical approaches in determining the temperature gradient. The evaluation starts with establishing the magnitude of the considered load. The challenge is to determine the conduction process of the heat load produced by the jet exhaust. This heat load characteristic shows that the temperature of the ejected gas gradually decreases in line with the distance from the jet nozzle. This paper presents the selection of the numerical approach of the combination steady and time-dependent heat load.
Understanding about patterns container flows is very important for port planning, development and operation, in particular export-based economy like Viet Nam. Reliable and accurate estimated models of those data flows help decision makers produce efficient and effective long-term development plans. In this paper, we conduct the empirical research study by applying Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Box Jenkins Approach, to analyse structural relations and characteristics of container flows through ports in Viet Nam. By this, we propose suitable forecasting models and port management policies.
This paper presents an in-depth energy analysis for hybrid straddle carrier to identify their energy consumption sources and discover energy reduction potentials. The methodology incorporates analysis of motions, performance data acquisitions by data logger, video analysis and spatial information analysis. Impact of various hybrid straddle carrier motions to energy consumption is presented and its total energy consumption is compared to diesel-driven straddle carrier. Subsequently, energy consumption model is calculated to grasp fuel coefficient associated to each motions that forms a movement of hybrid straddle carrier. Finally, prediction of energy use is calculated based on analysis of motion as a decision support system for container handling tasks.
Many of the rural areas in Japan, especially small islands, have suffered from depopulation and population ageing. These depopulation and population ageing have caused various problems. In the small islands, one of most important problems is a decrease in the number of the people who use passenger boat lines that connect between these islands and the mainland. The decrease in the users of these lines has made the lines fall into the verge of closing their services. Because of this, some of them are already given subsidy from the local governments, many of which have financial difficulties, in order to maintain their services. Validity of such a subsidy and an amount of it has to be investigated on the basis of contribution of the line to the areas and its economical valuation. The rapid passenger boat line connecting the Osaki-Kamijima Island and the mainland, which is the target of this study, has been in deficit and operated by being given the subsidy from the local government. In this study, economical valuation and contribution of this line to the island are analyzed on the basis of a questionnaire survey we carried out. From these results, validity of this subsidy to the line is examined.
This paper investigates trade-offs between direct and indirect shipping of overseas containers from East Asia to North Queensland, Australia. Direct shipping is where fully consolidated containers are directly transported to a destination port near which end customers are located; indirect shipping uses hub ports where de-consolidation/consolidation of goods occurs, and then land bridging to end customers in more distant locations. Indirect shipping is common in Australia for coastal locations with less volume. However, recent demographic changes in Queensland make the option of direct shipping, especially for goods from East Asia, more viable. This paper compares the cost, lead time, inventory level and social benefits for these two options. A quantitative case is then presented to illustrate these differences for a typical home appliance commodity. The results indicate that once sufficient freight volume is accumulated direct shipping is beneficial. These changes have significant consequences for Australia's logistics landscape.
Different widely accepted principles are used to determine the transport mode in which particular commodity is to be carried at the strategic planning level. One such rule is the commodity value-weight ratio. Discrete choice model is being employed in this paper using available macroscopic commodity trade information. The selection of appropriate data aggregation level for analysis is studied and its corresponding impacts are presented. By examining international commodity flows between countries, the modal split between air and sea transport are compared. After investigating four separate international trade routes and three trade data classification levels, it was found that aggregated trade classification data yields comparable results to detailed trade classification data. With respect to the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, our analyses showed that for the purpose of mode choice studies at the planning level, it may be more efficient to develop models using HS two-digit commodity trade data.
Road safety is a major concern for both neighborhoods and individuals. Traffic calming means the implementation of measures to reduce vehicle speed, excessive traffic volume, and accidents on residential streets. If requests for traffic calming exceed city resources then there is a need to prioritize projects. But Japan does not have a system of prioritization to apply in such cases. The objective of this research is to develop a traffic calming prioritization process. In this research, the paired comparison method was used to analyze respondent preferences about the streets which they feel more dangerous and in need of treatment by traffic calming. Discrete choice logit analysis was employed to reveal the factors for selecting streets for treatment by traffic calming. The model also explores the importance of variables during the selection of streets. These findings become important in order to improve the state of traffic safety in Japan and in other Asian countries.
The railway facility management system that incorporates a geographic information system (GIS) is now widely used in Japan’s railway sector. This system was originally developed in Japan for the maintenance and management of railway facilities by digitising asset information. Digitising asset information facilitated a seamless flow of data for railway engineering projects and the different sections and organisations of the railways. As operating railways through vertical separation has become the norm, this system can be utilised to share data among organisations. Moreover, the application of a global positioning system (GPS) made it possible to detect train locations, which resulted in developing train location and train driving support systems. The experiences in Japan demonstrate that the operation and management of railways can be improved by digitising asset information and using the GIS and GPS.
This study estimates the value of travel time savings (VTTS) by using four types of data sources: stated preference (SP) responses and revealed preference (RP) responses, each from a paper-based survey and a web-based survey. All data were collected in Atsugi City, Japan, in December 2010. In addition to a simple model with SP response data, a combined RP/SP model, a combined paper/web model, and combined RP/SP+paper/web models are formulated to integrate the different data sources. The results show that the VTTS estimated from paper-based survey data could be significantly different to those estimated from web-based survey data. In addition, the combined RP/SP model could improve the model fitness significantly. The combined paper/web model could not improve significantly the model fitness when compared to a paper-only model or web-only model. The combined RP/SP+paper/web model, however, could give the best estimation results, enabling us to obtain reasonable VTTS estimates.
The necessity of shifting the policy focus from supply-side initiatives such as physical-capacity expansion to demand-side initiatives including ease of congestion is newly rising as a compelling method of improving the general ride quality of the metro users. In an effort to catch up with such shifting trend, a system schematic that will update the congestion status of the metro lines via mobile devices is suggested through this study, along with the development of a smartphone application to realize this service idea. The developed smartphone application allows the metro passengers to identify the congested area of each station platform and to receive information on the congestion level of each train and car. Through such assistance, the metro congestion information system can improve the overall convenience of the metro passengers by helping them identify the congestion level across the metro lines.
Over the past five years, Indonesia's central government has encouraged the spread of bus rapid transit (BRT) systems many cities. In Palembang, efforts to introduce and manage a BRT-like have been relatively successful while similar efforts have encountered several hurdles in Bandung. What explains the varying degrees of success that Palembang and Bandung have experienced with BRT-like programs? This article aims to answer this question by employing an analytical framework that focuses on three governance variables: 1) capacity building; 2) stakeholder engagement and 3) resource mobilization. More concretely, this article argue Palembang relatively greater success stems from technical assistance that strengthened local capacities to develop and operate system; engagement mechanisms that brought incumbent operators and other stakeholder into important decision making process; and a regionally owned company that allocated additional resources. In contrast, the Bandung BRT-like did paid limited attention to building technical capacities, strengthening stakeholder engagement and allocating resources, resulting in a comparatively substandard performance of its BRT-like. Overall, the case of these two BRT-like’s underlines that replicating good practices in transport sector necessitates attention to how governance affect not on the technical but social feasibility of low carbon technologies.
Conventional intersection improvement strategies add lanes to accommodate increased traffic volume. In built up areas, augmenting lanes can become cost-prohibitive. Unconventional intersection configurations are effective in these situations. These intersections are generally symmetric in all legs. Depending on the traffic composition and available space symmetric treatments may not be highly efficient or effective. A simplified spreadsheet based methodology is proposed in this paper that can explore the strengths of relevant unconventional intersection configurations. The proposed method has the ability to develop hybrid intersection configurations that are asymmetric but appropriate for the situation. The strengths of displaced left-turn, jughandle and quadrant intersection design configurations are explored in this study to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
According to growing policy awareness of the relationship between transport disadvantage and social exclusion, free train policy was launched and funded by the Thai government to provide an alternative of public transportation for low-income. Then, the main objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the impact of free train policy on promoting social inclusion in Thailand. After the intercept interviews with 392 free train users, econometric model was developed to examine the impact of public transport subsidy on social inclusion. It was shown by the model that free train persuaded 32.65 percent of passengers to travel more frequently for participating more social activities. The beneficial group was the low income citizen with monthly income less than 6,518 Baht. However, 40.31 percent of free train users was not low-income, but gained unintended benefit from this policy.
Many urban areas in developing countries are experiencing serious traffic congestion. There are several obstacles to overcome in order to implement a travel speed survey (TSS) in these areas such as budget and time, lack of information on road segments, flexible operation of traffic control and relatively high deviation of travel speeds. Taking these obstacles into consideration, the methodology of an affordable and precise TSS with simple procedure can be developed. The methodology is tested with the field observation of the eight month TSS in the Colombo Metropolitan Area. Based on this, guidelines on the sample size of TSS as well as an appropriate method are proposed and discussed. It is understood that the development in methodology and findings can contribute to the practice of transportation planning in urban areas in developing countries.