This paper examines the traffic and environmental impacts of various scenarios of freight vehicle restrictions in the major streets of Metro Manila. Vehicle flows and emissions are estimated for a range of alternative scenarios involving truck restraints on urban roads. Network flows are approximated through a traffic assignment model and an origin-destination matrix for Metro Manila. Vehicle emissions are then estimated using speed and emission factors. The study is aided by Geographic Information System (GIS) particularly in setting-up the transportation network and in data manipulation and visualization. The alternative scenarios are then compared and analyzed for two spatial areas; i.e. regional and area-specific areas. Results of the study show that the existing large freight vehicle restriction policy is not very effective when viewed from a regional scale, although if viewed from an area-specific scale, it can be very effective in reducing local traffic and environmental impacts.
This paper outlines the development of an analytical model of multimodal, multi-commodity freight transportation in Indonesia. The model is used to evaluate strategic planning of inter-island freight transportation. The demand for inter-island freight transportation is estimated using econometric demand models which account for the socio-economic characteristics of the regions and commodity types. The supply side is concerned with modeling the inter-island transportation network, including links, such as the land access network, and transfer points which are connected by the links, and a generalized cost function. System optimization is obtained by identifying the combination of links and transfers that minimize the total generalized transport cost. The model is applied to the evaluation of the impacts of several policy scenarios which contribute to the improvement of the inter-island freight transportation network. The model has shown its capability of estimating system costs of transportation network that can be utilized to assess the policy implications.
This paper shows how important the use of statistics in Asian transport is for the model calculation in order to evaluate impacts of the policy to improve the environment of international freight transport. How the model accuracy is improved if some statistics are available in the model calculation, and how different the impacts to the model accuracy are discussed according to the type of available data used, especially from viewpoints of “detailed zoning” and “usage of more realistic data”. As a result, it is found that “detailed zoning” enhances the model accuracy. On the other hand, the impact of “usage of more realistic data” on worldwide international cargo flow is limited, but it is as significant as that of “detailed zoning” on international cargo flow crossing national border by land. It is also found that both of them bring significant differences when evaluating policy effects such as infrastructure investment and alleviating barriers of national borders.
The advent of containerization technology has resulted in inter-port competition due to the expansion of hinterlands. Two tendencies, namely concentration and deconcentration of container traffic, have been observed during this process. This study focuses on the comparative discussion of port concentration dynamics during the period of 1975-2005 in three countries in Eastern Asia: Japan, China and Korea. The concentration dynamics in these three countries are examined by the Geo-Economic Concentration index, which is a comparable concentration index in different countries. The results of concentration analysis show the diversified evolution dynamics of the countries concerned. Furthermore, the differences of evolution patterns are explained from the perspective of port development policies and port governance.
This paper presents a study that develops the optimal step toll scheme to bulk carriers queuing for vacant berths at a busy port. Port arrival times of bulk carriers were rationally dispersed with this toll pricing scheme, consequently decreasing queuing time of all bulk carriers at the anchorage. This paper shows all arrived bulk carriers' equilibrium queuing costs, and equilibrium derivative costs due to queuing under the optimal step toll scheme. Based on the invariant equilibrium derivative cost principle, this paper provides a framework to predict bulk carrier owners' decisions of arrival time changes from the non-toll equilibrium to the optimal step toll scheme cases.
This study aims to develop a model for the evaluation of Quality of Mobility (QOM) based on the Capability approach pioneered by Amartya Sen. It seeks to illustrate how to use such model in the evaluation QOM among regions by applying this to the condition in Yamaga City, Japan. Evaluation results indicate that the transportation service level in this city will decrease and the inequality will expand in the future. Therefore, some policies were prepared and evaluated. Using the model, it was concluded that the policy that will encourage people to live in the city center and improve road will enhance QOM.
There has been much concern on the need for integrated transportation planning and urban land use development to promote sustainability in metropolitan areas. An integrated transportation-land development framework is critical to explicitly address concerns on sustainability in urban areas. This paper shall examine the various options that can be used by transportation and urban development agencies to promote sustainability. A number of cases studies in the United States are presented and lessons are drawn from the implementation of these strategies. Examples of efforts in Asian countries to integrate transportation and urban development are then discussed.