Intersections are hazardous locations, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh where an increasing trend of injury severity in the past nine years has been observed. In this study, a partially constrained generalized ordered logit model is applied to a sample of crash data from 1998 to 2006 to determine the factors contributing to severity of intersection crashes in Bangladesh. We find that severity tends to increase when the crash occurs on an undivided highway, involves single vehicle, non-motorized vehicle, motorized two-wheeler, bus, truck or pedestrian. Severity also tends to increases when the intersections are located in rural areas, on dry pavement or during adverse weather. On the other hand, a crash is likely to be less severe when the intersection is attended by traffic police.
This paper proposes a model that clarifies the influence of family safety information levels and shelter conditions on the behavior of earthquake-stranded commuters. The model is based on a Multi-Agent Simulation (MAS) framework so as to capture interactions among commuters and their influence on personal decisions. Simulation experiments were carried out in order to demonstrate the model. These experiments were based on a hypothetical earthquake in the city of Sapporo, Japan, where earthquakes are common weather phenomena. Model outputs highlight the importance of family information and perceived shelter environment conditions on commuters' decision making regarding staying at safe shelters or facing uncertain return-home journeys. Simulation outputs also identify the importance of sojourn shelters in reducing the likely hazards posed to stranded travelers. Furthermore, the results of an original path choice algorithm, proposed in this study, indicate that en route road choice changes are performed by travelers because of road conditions.
Social Networking Services (SNSs) attract much attention as media for collecting disaster information. Many studies have been conducted regarding the effect of SNSs on people's behavior during disasters. However, there are few studies that deal with the relationship between daily SNS usage and people's behavior during disasters. Based on a questionnaire survey in Bangkok, the relationship was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling and the Theory of Planned Behavior. It was found that attitudes toward the collection of information in daily life had some influence on the intention to collect disaster information. Additionally, confidence in their ability to select correct information had crucial influence on whether or not to increase SNS usage. It was concluded that SNSs have some potential as interactive media. That is, they should be used not only for collecting but also for providing information.
Drawing on the behavior theory, this paper investigates cabin crew safety behavior with regard to three aspects of affecting factors including individual, group and organization. Specifically, we specify perceived airlines' Safety Management System practice, department managers' benevolent leadership and individual core self-evaluations as three factors affecting cabin crew safety behavior, and we hypothesize upward safety communication as a mediator. We apply structural equation modeling to examine a hypothesized model using a sample data from flight attendants working for the Taiwanese international airlines. A variety of fit indices confirmed the overall model fit, and most of the hypotheses were found to be supported. The results reveal that cabin crews' positive perceptions of the three indicators may lead directly to flight attendants' willingness to conduct upward safety communication, which has a direct and significant effect on their compliance and proactive safety behaviors. The empirical implications are discussed, and directions for future research are identified.
This study aims to clarify the effect of sun glare on traffic accident occurrence. Analyses of traffic accidents were carried out to calculate the position of the sun relative to the first vehicle concerned (i.e., the vehicle most responsible for causing the accident) at the accident time and location by using the traffic accident database of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The traffic accident rate was found to increase when the viewing angle decreased to less than 90 degrees. When the sun was in front of the first vehicle concerned, there was a higher occurrence of pedestrian accidents, bicycle accidents and accidents at intersections, and a slightly higher occurrence of right-turning accidents and accidents in winter. However, the tendency for vehicle drivers to be affected adversely by sun glare was not observed to increase with increases in vehicle speed. Traffic safety measures against such kinds of accidents are needed.
Driver behavior is influenced by external factors and latencies. Studies have shown that the driver's hazard perception can reduce the delay by training. This study referred to the practice of advanced countries recorded videos of hazardous context, and invited professional instructors to evaluate the hazard perception test. When a hazardous context occurred, the subjects were asked to click the mouse immediately, and the computer recorded the subject's reaction time to determine the score interval of primary hazards. When the primary hazards were determined, the clicking time distribution of primary hazards was tested. This study assumed the distribution to be a normal distribution and used two methods of normality test. The normal distribution diagram was divided into five equal parts according to the occurrence to end of hazards, and given 1-5 points as the marking standard of the hazard perception test.
This study investigates the heterogeneity of factor effects on commercial driver stress and burnout using quantile regression. A total of 1,064 questionnaires were collected in Taiwan. The results show that body mass index (BMI), health problems, and perceived safety culture significantly affect the stress level of commercial drivers. The effects produced by these factors vary over the whole distribution and are particularly evident in the upper quantiles. Commercial drivers who have suffered a high level of stress are especially fragile; any increase in BMI or health problems or decrease in perceived safety culture substantially raises their stress level. Meanwhile, stress is the most significant factor affecting work-related burnout. The effect created by stress on burnout level in the upper quantile is almost double the magnitude compared with the lower quantile. The results emphasize the need to take care of commercial drivers experiencing high stress and burnout.
This study examines children's independent mobility (CIM) among primary school students during their home.school journeys in Hong Kong. It represents an empirical study to assess the impact of individual, family and environmental determinants in influencing the level of CIM. Using territory-wide travel diary data from the Travel Characteristic Survey 2002 (TCS02), logistic regression modeling is used to understand the key factors associated with an increased level of CIM among children in the city. The present study found that approximately one-third of school journeys were conducted by children on their own. CIM was highly associated with the distance to school, the age group of children, median household income, family structure, working status of mothers, employment of domestic helper, neighborhood settlement types and density of school places. These findings can provide input to strategies for promoting an increased level of CIM to improve children's well-being.
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