This study investigates the injury severity of drivers involved in two-vehicle crashes in Toyota City, Japan. An ordered probit model is proposed to measure the injury severity of two drivers in two-vehicle crashes, which is supposed to be independent for drivers from the same accident. The Gibbs Sampler algorithm is implemented to estimate unknown parameters in the proposed model. The major findings suggest: 1) that crashes occurring at night are more prone to high injury severity, compared to other time-periods; 2) that the collision types like head-on, crossing and right-turn cause higher injury severity of drivers, compared to rear-end collision; 3) that trucks are much stronger and have more resistance to two-vehicle crashes compared to passenger cars; 4) that drivers aged less than 25 and greater than or equal to 70 are less likely to be seriously injured in two-vehicle crashes, compared to drivers aged between 25 and 69.
This study tries to contribute to the understanding of road safety in Indonesia, by utilizing a Negative Binomial Regression (NBR) and Zero-inflated Negative Binomial Regression (ZINBR). The goal is to build an accident estimation model and have better understanding of how the varying road elements and traffic conditions contribute to accidents. This study also includes the International Road Assessment Program (iRAP) star rating methodology in the crash estimation model. The study produced three main conclusions. First, star ratings have negative correlation with accident occurrence and are also poorly correlated with accident occurrence, which indicates that the risk factors and the widely used iRAP methodology needs to be adjusted. Second, several land use, roadway type and traffic compositions were found to be significant explanatory variables. Finally, based on AIC, BIC, Vuong and the Prediction test, ZINBR is a better model compared to NBR.
Traffic accidents result in more than 1.2 million deaths worldwide per year, especially in developing countries. Therefore, road safety is a major issue in these countries. Many researchers found that traffic accidents occur mainly because of driving stress and driving behavior. There are few studies on driving stress in developing countries, particularly in Myanmar. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of roadway conditions on driving stress in Myanmar by using heart rate variability (HRV). The study used two polar watches V800, a heart rate sensor H7, and a video camera to collect data and carried out time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of HRV by using the Kubios HRV analysis software. The results showed that drivers experience different driving stresses depending on roadway conditions. In particular, highly crowded places and those requiring attention such as mixed roads, lane-changing points, jaywalking places, rough and bad pavements, traffic congestion areas, and flyover are the most stressful segments along the roadway for drivers.
This paper investigates three main factors that cause the bus accident, namely driver, vehicle and environment. Field data is collected to accommodate the methodology. Particularly, the variables of driver's driving behavior, bus type, and road type have been examined by statistical approach. Driver's behavior is discussed in terms of driver personal characteristics and passenger rating. The acceleration of bus is important to address the bus dynamic. Chosen road site characterizes mountainous component. These are three main factors to be examined. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analysis, hypothesis testing and Pearson Correlation have been carried out to explain the relationship among the variables. Statistical results show that the variables are significant to each other.
The mandatory supervised driving exercise under the Graduated Driving Licensing (GDL) system had been widely adopted in developed countries and it was proven effective in reducing road fatalities and injuries among young novice drivers. Unfortunately, this exercise was not implemented in Malaysia. Hence, the suitability of this exercise to be implemented in Malaysia and the effectiveness of it could not be assessed directly. This study was intended to investigate the effective method of supervised driving that could be implemented to improve the driving performance of young novice drivers in Malaysia. This study revealed that supervisor who assist and guide young novice driver to anticipate hazard could increase their driving performance. A minimum supervision of at least 150 minutes is needed to improve the driving performance of young novice drivers. This study provide useful insights for policy maker in Malaysia to consider similar intervention as a strategy to reduce road fatalities and injuries among young novice drivers in the future.
Advanced technologies have often been advocated as a means of significantly reducing the incidence and severity of road crashes. Technologies utilizing Intelligent Transport System (ITS) in automobiles and road systems are actively being studied and disseminated as a way to expedite such improvements to road, vehicle safety and traffic systems. In Malaysia, MIROS as a road safety research institute and ASEAN Road Safety Centre (ARSC), had recommended and proposed some advanced technology utilizing ITS and initiatives to the government, Ministry of Transport (MOT) to be implemented in this country. Thus, this paper will assess on the planning towards the implementation of the advanced technologies that have been penetrated in Malaysia such as Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) technologies, eCall initiative and towards fully implementation of Autonomous vehicles (AV) besides on the establishment of ASEAN NCAP. To make this successful, automotive industries, stake holders and governments are needed to co-operate together in implemented such policies and these advanced technologies in order to reduce traffic casualties especially in Malaysia.
Rutting is a major form of distress that can be seen in asphalt pavements. Safety issues due to pavement rutting are mainly wet weather related, where ponding in ruts cause hydroplaning and loss of skid resistance in wet weather conditions. The current practice does not adequately evaluate pavement rutting based on these functional characteristics of the pavements. Criteria in pavement condition evaluation manuals for rutting severity assessment are primarily based on engineering judgment and focused on the pavement structural failure. Lack of a proper quantitative approach to determine the rut severity and pavement condition evaluation has resulted in the same severity classifications adopted for all types of highway irrespective of its design speed and pavement surface condition. This study proposes a methodology to estimate deduct values for ruts considering its impact on the pavement skid resistance which can be used to calculate the pavement condition index of roads incorporating safety considerations.
Road safety is a major concern for road users. Vehicles traveling at speeds higher than the speed limit are one of the main reasons for the increased number of accidents along arterial roads in Malaysia. Transverse bars are considered as an effective measure in addressing the increased speed of traffic along arterial roads. This paper investigates the effects of transverse bars on the speed of the vehicles at a road segment along an arterial road in Kuala Lumpur. Two sets of transverse bars at an arterial road in Kuala Lumpur were selected. The design profiles and spot speed of the vehicles at the two selected transverse bars were measured. The speed of the vehicles before, on and after the transverse bars was analysed. The findings show despite the speed of the vehicles having decreased when approaching towards transverse bars, the speed still remains higher than the permissible speed limit.
In this paper, we present an ad hoc model for car traffic generation, which is used to make projections in 2060, according to a number of scenarios based on various assumptions about fuel prices, fuel efficiency, income growth and travel behaviors of new generations. Two sets of scenarios are successively tested, corresponding either to the “business as usual” case, or to a declining appetite for car ownership in new generations. Projection results serve to discuss the “peak car” hypothesis of a decline to come in average car travel per adult. The modelling framework is based on a sequential and individual approach to car traffic generation where the age-cohort framework is combined with panel data econometrics. Projection results suggest that under stable behaviors, “peak car” is less likely to happen than a plateau. A decline in car travel could happen, nonetheless, in case of changing behaviors in new generations.