In order to form an attractive business environment, it is crucial to take courses of action immediately after carefully observing the business environment and conducting a solid analysis. The main purpose of this research study is to indicate the key obstacles and their causes in conducting foreign trade in Mongolia, as well as to determine the courses of action in order to develop the sector. Within the framework of the goal of this research, the survey results have been grouped and analyzed in three groups: 1) within the territory of Mongolia; 2) within the territory of trade partner countries; and 3) difficulties that occur in the operation of international trading companies.
In this paper, the author aims to comprehensively evaluate the transportation and logistics environment of the eastern region of Russia via making comparison with western Russia, based on microdata obtained via a large-scale interview survey of firms. From the simple aggregation of the response results, it can be understood that the firms of eastern Russia strongly demand an improvement in the environment in various aspects, not only for hard infrastructure, but also soft infrastructure. Most of the difference between east and west in the strength of this demand is explained by the external conditions surrounding individual firms and the special characteristics of the firms themselves. As a conclusion it can be said that the transport and logistics environment of eastern Russia is inferior in comparison with western Russia.
Despite growing trade and economic relations among the countries in the Northeast Asian (NEA) region, there are only two bilateral free trade agreements in effect currently. The China–ROK Free Trade Agreement entered into force on 20 December 2015 and the Japan–Mongolia Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) became effective on 7 June 2016. However, several EPAs and free trade agreements (FTAs) are under negotiation or have prospects to emerge among not only the countries in the region, but also surrounding regions and countries.
An analysis of the economic effects of the ongoing FTA (China–Japan–Korea Trilateral Free Trade Agreement (CJK FTA)), and several other prospective FTAs—Northeast Asia Preferential Free Trade Agreement (NEA FTA); Northeast Asia plus the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) Preferential Free Trade Area (NEA+EAEU FTA); and Northeast Asia plus the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) plus the EAEU Preferential Free Trade Area (NEA+RCEP+EAEU FTA)—using the standard CGE Model and GTAP Data Base 9.0a revealed that all parties of the agreements will benefit from the formation of these free trade agreements, having welfare gains and real GDP expansions regardless of international capital mobility status—i.e. whether the capital is internationally mobile or not. Moreover, the results indicated that for the NEA region as a whole, the NEA FTA is preferable to the CJK FTA alone, and it would be even better off with the formation of wider free trade areas, such as with the other RCEP and EAEU members.