Distributions of terrestrial Isopods (Oniscidea) were researched among 1181 sites in Kobe City and adjacent area, Hyogo Prefecture. Armadillidium nasatum Budde–Lund, 1885 was widely found at 291 sites, continuously extending in a range of ca 32 km wide east to west, ca 27 km north to south. Armadillidium nasatum tended to appear on the north and south slope area of Mt. Rokko just as Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 do. On the contrary, Porcellio laevis Latreille, 1804 was mainly found in coastal areas of Kobe City. Logistic regression analysis suggested that annual average temperature and annual precipitation might affect the distributions of P. laevis as well as habitats.
Desoria gracilliseta colonizes a fruticose lichen, Cladonia sp., in a snowy habitat in Hokkaido, Japan. Juveniles appear in October, continue to develop under snow, and mature in May. Recent surveys from mid-September to mid-October revealed the presence of a Tetracanthura-like collembolan, in addition to D. gracilliseta juveniles. Body lengths of the Tetracanthura-like collembolan remained consistent throughout the duration of the surveys averaging 0.49 mm, whereas D. gracilliseta juveniles grew steadily from 0.54 mm to 0.8 mm. Both forms were almost indistinguishable except that the Tetracanthura-like collembolan had four anal spines on abdominal segment VI and short spines on the head and thorax segment II. Large individuals distinctive of D. gracilliseta collected in March were also included for comparisons in morphology and DNA sequences. Antennal segment IV and the furca developed with increasing body length. DNA barcode analysis, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 16S ribosomal RNA genes confirmed the genetic identities of the Tetracanthura-like collembolan, and juveniles and subadults of D. gracilliseta to be D. gracilliseta. The significance of morphological changes in D. gracilliseta was discussed in terms of survival strategy against predation.
Phylogeographic analyses of a laniatorid harvestman Pseudobiantes japonicus Hirst, 1911 (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores: Epedanidae) in Japan have provided evidence for long-term isolation among allopatric clades from different refugia, and there was a possible narrow hybrid zone between two different phylogroups, Clade A and Clade B, in central part of Shikoku. We performed PCR-RFLP analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nrDNA) to clarify whether hybridization or introgression between them occur or not in the area where ranges of Clade A and Clade B meet. We were able to detect neither heterozytes for nrDNA genes nor the incongruence between mtDNA and nrDNA. These results indicated that P. japonicus have not experienced hybridization or introgression between Clade A and Clade B in the contact zone, suggesting that they could be considered as cryptic species.