Online ISSN : 2185-0186
Print ISSN : 0387-3145
ISSN-L : 0387-3145
17 巻
  • 教師集団研究会
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 2-49,en249
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this report are summarized the results of the study conducted since 1959 by some of the members of the Japanese Association of Educational Sociology living in Tokyo.
    An attempt has been made to analyze the teachers' group of a school as a unit, which forms the core of the school administrative, organization and so-called the system of educational movements, in relation to school administration, teachers union movement and to the school board.
    Theoretical explanations have been made concerning the significance of the study of teachers' group which is regarded as an integrating subject in educational practice. Both in urban and rural areas 52 primary and junior high schools were sampled in terms of the size of the schools, and individual teachers in those schools were asked to answer the questionnaire. The survey was conducted in 1961. The following are the summarized results of the study.
    First of all, if the collectivity of the teachers is compared with other occupational groups, the teachers' consciousness in their daily life is very similar to that of the ordinary white-collar workers. In their informal human relations emotional influence is strong, particularly among women teachers. It seems that teachers are burdened with miscellaneous clerical duties which handicap their educational practice and fail to uplift their morale. Also assignment of duties in accordance with seniority seems to disturb the unity of the teachers' group.
    Secondly, in observing the process of organization of teachers' groups, some of them are being organized smoothly, while others are not; at the same time there are some undifferentiated groups. In primary schools there are more undifferentiated groups than in junior high schools, in which almost half of the groups are smoothly organized, while the others are not.
    The types of principals in terms of both personal and administrative position, (for instance, bureaucratic type) influence the process of the organization of teachers group` and the morale of the teachers' groups to a great extent. In this respeet it can be stated that the status of the organization of the teachers groups is closely related to the morale in education.
  • 原 芳男
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 50-58,en248
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The teacher, the child and the parent are the three main personalities in educational research. Each of them has been studied in different branches of educational sciences with particular emphasis on their own method, but many things are still unknown with regard to the total structure of the reciprocal relations among these three interacting personalities.
    This paper deals with age and sex as a connecting link of the relationship in which an emphasis is put on a tendency of feminization of the teaching profession, sex neutrality in school culture and the increasing responsibility of child rearing in the family.
    The remarkable increase of Japanese female teachers reached 46 in 1961, but administrative positions are almost occupied by male teachers.(the ratio of female principals in the elementary schools are only 0.43%) Consequently the equality principle is particularly emphasized in the teaching profession. The increasing feminization in the teaching profession in Japan is stimulated by (1) the real and potential increase of female teachers, (2) female teachers' strong desire for equality in treatment, (3) classroom teachers' autonomy in school administration which has been strengthened after world warn.
    Combined with sex neutrality in children, the equality principle tends to create girl's superiority in school culture because girls are more eager in “emanisipation drive” than boys.
    One other factor of the feminization in education is the woman's role in the conjugal family. The kinship system which has been prevalent under the development of industrialization is the nuclear family consisting of the limited menbers of husband, wife and their children. In this simple family organization the responsibility of child rearing is, as a rule, placed on the house wife, the mother. She becomes a significant “role model” for boys as well as girls. Thus children are raised chiefly by women at home and in the school. In spite of the sex differentiation by the sexes and the tendency of masculine superiority in the total society, education in Japan is inclined to be dominated by the tendency of feminization and will be more in the future.
  • A社技能者養成所の生徒指導をめぐって
    山口 富造
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 59-73,en247
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Education-in-industry for young workers has become increasingly important, but there remain many unsolved problems. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the consciousness of young workers in a big industry as to their daily life in the factory, and to clarify some of the crucial points in terms of guidance of the trainees. For this purpose, the trainees of the second and the third year classes have been asked to answer the questionnaire as well as interviewed.
    The following points have been made clear: (1) There is a deep discrepancy between the image of their work before the workers came to the factory and after they entered. In a word, most of the trainees had their expectation betrayed after they entered the factory. This will give important suggestions to the teachers of junior high schools as well as to the trainers of the training institute with regard to the guidanee of their pupils. (2) A change is taking place with regard to the consciousness of the trainees and their human relations as they become upperclassmen. (3) There are some inconsistencies on the part of the trainers in industry. For instance, the trainers cleverly distinguish the educational principles at school from those in industry. This will not only lead to unnecessary confusion and criticism on the part of the trainees but also remain as an unsolved problem on the part of the trainers. (4) In order to uplift the morale of the trainees it is necessary to reform institutional aspect and to make fundamental improvement of the order and working conditions in the factory. To achieve this purpose, it is most important to establish the status and the rights of the trainers in industry.
  • 自己概念の「安定性」の点から
    横田 澄司
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 74-88,en246
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    「安定性」が高まるということは、その児童の自己概念が望ましく変化することであり、児童集団内の対人関係において児童が協力的な関係を維持しようとする傾向を示すものである。「安定性」の変数に関して、基本的欲求度 (Positive vs Negative) および社会階層 (上、中、下) に応じて直接的な効果としては表われていないが、分散分析の上で交互作用として相互に影響し合っていることは明確であった。ただ基本的欲求度もPositiveな児童にのみ予測された方向に差異をみた。
    以上を観点をかえて述べるならば、児童の安定性は、(a) 児童の自己概念に働く内的な影響力、(b) 各児童に対して相互影響の過程において相互に相手の児童の認知に変化を及ぼす外的影響力の二つの効果を理解することが可能である。こういった点から効果の差異から異なった人間関係を生み出すのである。
  • 序論的考察
    潮木 守一
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 90-105,en246
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    European countries are now confronted with the urgent necessity of educational expansion. In order to build sufficient schools for expanding school-age population and to provide more institutions of secondary and higher education so that they may have equal opportunity of education and to keep pace with the rapid development of industry, they are necessiated to invest much more money in education. Hitherto, most of them spent about 3 or 4 percent of national income for education, but it is thought that they have to make this proportion higher in future. In these circumstances European educationalists and economists began to study educational planning keeping in close relation with the economic growth of their countries, and these movements gave birth to a new study field, “economics of education.” In Germany Professor F. Edding (Director of the Hochschule ftir Internationale Padagogische Forschung) has studied the macro-economic backgrounds of educational expenditures and found out some tendencies in their developments in modern countries. On the basis of these findings he tried to work out an analysing and forecasting method of educational expenditures of countries. By using this method, he tried to forecast the total educational expenditure of West-Germany in 1970, and explored the possibility of financing it on the basis of the possible economic growth of West-Germany by 1970.
    In October 1961 OECD held a conference in Washington on the “Economic Growth and Investment in Education.” Profs. Svennilson, Edding and Elvin wrote a report of this conference, in which we canfind that Prof. Edding has improved his forecasting method of educational expenditure and that many more economic aspects of educational developments have been elucidated. This analysing and forecasting method of educational expenditure is very useful in studying various cases in educational finance in our country.
    According to Prof. Edding, there is a close correlation between national income and educational expenditure (0.992 in 1951), but Japan and the Soviet Union are exceptions to this close correlation. They show much higher ratios of investment in education than expected by their economic levels. He says that, in these countries, there is a strong will to improve the position of the country within a short sran of time. This interpretation is very interesting and instructive in evaluating the progress of modernization of our country. We can learn from these studies not only a method of a long-range educational planning but also clues to historical review.
  • 岡田 至雄
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 106-116,en245
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of the report is to determine the extent to which sociological characteristics of modern enterprise effect the patterns of worker training and or of education for the employees.
    I think that the contents or the purposes of education is enterprise are inevitably prescribed by formal organization and technical orgnization in industry. Therefore, education can not exist without considering social aspects of the group. In consequence, it is adequate to say that enterprise educates employees. There follows from this frame of reference education for the most desirable worker and how to train the employees.
    In a word, an instruction to be promanagement-minded; an orientation to develop group identification and morale; a training to work hard and efficiently; an education to become a better citizen-these are required. These are closely related to the next four characteristics of the enterprise.
    First, enterprise is an economic asscciation which pursues a profit. Secondly, enterprise is an organization which employees enter in order to catisfy their economical and occupational needr. Thirdly, enterprise is an agency between family and mass society. Lastly, enterprise consists of subgroups, such as, managers, professional workers, operators, office workers, etc.,
    I pursue correlations between these specialities of industry and educational plans in a concrete form.
  • 技能者養成制度の変貌過程
    山崎 昌甫
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 117-131,en244
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper has three premises. In the first place, it requires a special method and approach in order to attack the question of education-in-industry, because enterprise is a symbolic, systematic group which constitutes the present society, and the problems in it decidedly effect the politics, economics and education of the society throughout present and future. Accordingly, educational problems in industry remain not only to the interior aspect of the industry, but also relate to the whole aspect of educational system in society to a great extent. In the second place, the subjects of education-in-industry must be contsructively analyzed as a part of the total ecucationat phenomenon in society. Lastly, at the same time education-in-industry must be viewed from the historical standpoint, otherwise significant implications of education-in-industry relating to technical innovation would not be grasped correctly.
    Now in this paper, in Chapter I is explained historically how postwar education-in-industry has been organized for a managerial group as a mcdern attempt in enterprise. In the following chapter is described how organizations of labor forces and personnel management have been transformed with the progress of technical development since 1955 and how inevitably training for craftmanship has been changed.
  • 農村家族の構造とその世代的発展内容の変容についての一考察
    布施 鉄治
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 132-147,en243
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The postwar interest in the studies of Japanese rural families has been in the demccratization of human relations in the rural family. In this paper, we examine the changing process of the rural family. Firstly, we think that the rural family is a farming productive organization and farmer's livelihood organization. These organizations are changing with the progress of Japanese capitalism. So, the problem of democratization of human relations in the family must be understood from the viewpoint of the rationality of these orga nizations.
    The fundamental type of the Japanese rural family is an extended family, which consists of grandfather, father, and the oldest son's family.
    In this family organization neither grandfather nor grandmother has any access to new ways of farming production, but they participate in decision-making process. We think that this will check the pr -gress of farming.
    But today, farming techniques and knowledge are changing remarkably. So the traditional form of the organization that the oldest son is taught farming techniques and knowledge by his father is not effective any longer. We are sure that presently the powers of grandfather and grandmother will be weakened.
    On the other side, even the oldest son who is expected to succeed to his father's estate goes out to city. He is unhappy because the family organization does not pay any personal reward to him but omits him from the decision-making process of the organization. Thus, the traditional form of an extended family is broken.
    The traditional Japanese rural family had constantly a great deal of labor force within the family from generation to generation, and it had a periodicity. But the recent trend that even the oldest son goes to city and the second or the third son succeeds to his father's estate, is changing this periodicity of family. In conclusion, when the youngest son succeeds to his father's estate, the labor force within the family becomes the least from generation to generation, and a period becomes the longest.
    In this sense, too, an extended family which has supported Japanese agriculture by means of intensive farming method is being broken.
  • 漁村部落の事例を通して
    後藤 文夫
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 148-163,en242
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is important that the relation of a village community to education should be studied historically. Above all, how education is carried on in a village community today must be observed in relation to the process of change in the social and economical structure of a village community.
    Oura, the object of my survey, is a poor fishing village of one hundred and eight houses. This village was founded by the people who immigrated there about three hundred and fifty years ago.
    Now the process of change of this village may be devided into three periods.
    (1) The social tension and unifying process in the village community.(before and after 1937)
    (2) The stabilized period. (1950-1955)
    (3) The changing period in the social and economical structure of the village community, reorganization of the village system.(1955-1962)
    My subject-matter here is to study how the educational system of the village has been influenced by the change of the village in these three periods.
  • わが国の社会教育分野への導入を意図して
    星 永俊
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 164-174,en242
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    AIM: As the capitalistic system of prcduction advanced highly in Japan, it has exerted a great influence upon agricultual production. It has brought a rapid development of the productive mode of agriculture. Accordingly, the structure of rural community, that is under the direct regulation of such productive mode, has conceived various problems in the course of its transformation. It might be said that the social structure of rural community itself is under pressure of systematization and reorganization in some sense. Despite such actual necessity, however, various cliciplines of social science and angencies concerned have not obtained excellent results. Consequently, it is keenly felt that the introduction of the theory of community organization is necessary in the field of social education as a branch of sociology of education. As.the first step in this direction, the above mentioned subject of study has been selected.
    METHOD: An analysis of theories on rural community organization was made in the literature of this field, especially in Rural Community Organization and Rural Sociology and Rural Social Organization by Sanderson an American rural sociologist who intended a systematic study on the problem of organization with special interest.
    CONCLUSION: With the result of examination, it has become evident that rural community organization is a necessary and important field of study in social education to deal with many problems that are arising within communities. Finally, it is emphasized that many problems remain for the future study.
  • 広島県下私学の実態
    宇野 豪
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 175-187,en241
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The private school ideology in Japan seems to have been fostered through historical changes and development of private schools, whose origin goes nearly a century back to Era of Emperor Meiji, and generalized among teachers and society in general in its peculiar form. So, the writer wishes to define it as a theoretical and practical backbone for the administration and education in private schools, for Private-school movement, and for the legislations of private schools, it is a special educational ideology with controlling and evaluating functions.
    Through researches of private schools in Hiroshima Prefecture, this paper aims first to point out the change since world war II, and the establishment of the ideology, and then to make clear how the change and establishment have caused the alteration of the social traits of private school groups.
    The writer divides this ideology into four analytical levels: individual, group, social and institutional. In this report, the writer deals mainly with the private school ideology on the group level in relation to the group structures of the schools. However, in the first part (I) of this analysis, he takes up briefly two problems- (1) the historical processes of formation and institutionalization of this ideology in Japan, (2) the structural and E.Ictional changes in form of the private schools by the present legislation. It was necessary to make this outline as the preparation for the next analysis. In analysis (II) some analyses are attempted to be found on the statistic, described and observed data about the private schools in Hiroshima Prefecture.
    The writer's analysis induces to mention as important the following three ponts:
    1. Three closednesses (that is to say, familial, class, and religious closednesses) in administrative organizations of the school-juridicalparsons.
    2. The tradition-directed tendency and the ir-rationalism as the fundamental orientation of private schools.
    3. The organization of teachers' groups and the structural differentiation of private schools.
  • 阿久津 喜弘
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 188-201,en240
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Television should be accepted as an essential part of adult education and the use of television in adult education should be strongly urged. In connection with the use of television, the question arises as to how well the effects of an adult educational television program are retained over a long period of time. At the same time, the effects of the program should be explored at attitude level, foran important component of adult education is the restructuring of frames of reference. In this study, the problem is to determine the retention of the effects of an adult educational television program on attitude changes.
    Experimental Procedure:
    The program used in this study: Kinescope Recording; An adult educational television Program “Unbalance, ”(Televised over NFIKTV on September 21, 1958), presented briefly many unbalanced social occurrences in Japan.
    Subjects: 100 undergraduate ;dormitory students of the International Christian University.
    Measuring Methods:(1) Questionnaires were used to determine political interests, political party affiliation, program evaluation, and existence of opinion leaders within the subject groups.(2) The Semantic Differencial, developed by Osgood, C. E., was used as the attitudemeasuring instrument.(3) The Scholastie Aptitude Test score and parent's occupation for each subject were obtained from the student record.
    Design: The effects on attitude changes were determined at two time intervals after the program showing, one immediately after the showing and another t hree weeks later. The before-after experimental design was used. 48 subjects (25 men and 23 women) saw the Kinescope recording of the program, and 52 subjects (25 men and 27 women) were used as a control group.
    Results:(1) With respect to the concepts presented in a concrete form in the program, the significant attitude changes with both the male and the female subjects were evident immediately after the program viewing, but three weeks later these changes regressed to the prior level.
    (2) With respect to the concepts presented in an abstract form, the signifficant attitude changes with all subjects were not so evident immediately after the viewing. Three weeks later, however, these changes with the male subjects were retained, and the significant changes with the female became more evident
    (3) With respect to the concepts related to the content of the program, immediately after the viewing, the significant changes with the male were not so evident, but the significant changes with the female were evident. Three weeks later, these changes with the male regressed to the prior level, but the changes with the female were retained.
    (4) With respect to the concept indirectly related to the content of the program, the significant changes with the male were evident immediately after the viewing, and were retained. The significant changes with the female were not evident immediately after the viewing, and regressed to the prior level three weeks later.
  • テオドール・ガイガーの所説を中心に
    大本 晋
    1962 年 17 巻 p. 202-209,en238
    発行日: 1962/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper some observations are made concerning Theodore Geiger's theory in relation to the following two points:
    (1) internalization mechanism-how external control is converted into internal control, which is the function of education in social control,
    (2) significance of socialization to social control-socialization which takes place in complicated educational situations, that is, various groups.
    According to Geiger, both law and morals are derived from “kommunitäre Ordnung”. Various factors included in “kommunitäre Ordnung” are differentiated in both extremes, and as a result of this, that is, processes of institutionalization and internalization, lvw and morals are formurated. This process of interhalization is that of the formation of ideology. An affirmative or a negative emotional rela tionship to a certain behavior pattern is reinterpreted as good or evil; the behavior pattern itself is determined as good (or evil), and the characteristics thereof are given to the behavior pattern, which is objectified. Then, this concept of good (or evil), which is the concept of value, is made as an object for thinking and theoretical framework is formulated. Thus, the nature and content of good is prescribed from the conceptual existentialistic standpoint, and good behavior. is considered good deductively because it is related to the concept of good. In this way, an individual's judgment (conscience) becomes not only the judge of the social norms but also the establisher of the norms, and the external authority of norms is converted into internal authority of conscience. This is the process how external control is transformed into internal control.
    Next, socialization takes place by means of belonging to groups, each of which holds its own idea of values (self ideals) and demands upon its members identification to its own values. Therefore, there exist two conflicting ideas of values and individuals are faced with a crisis of divided personality. The mechanizm of internalization, however, includes factors which make it possible to overcome the. crisis. In relation to the above mentioned, the significance of autonomous education is studied.