1. For the purpose of delineating the difference of community morals, two small communities of different levels of urbanization were selected: one was a rural community in a transitory stage to a residential suburb, and the other a public housing area in a large city. 2. An empirical approach to morals will be made with at the idea of social control. The society enforces its members to conform to those patterns of behavior which it approves, This enforcement will be most distinctive in a problem situation where an individual member is forced to make a choice between two conflicting behavior patterns, The behavior pattern thus chosen will take the character of a social norm. The members are not always reluctant in their conformity, because they are, in many cases, motivated with the feeling that it is good to conform to these social norms. In such cases, the norms are regarded by the members as morals. 3. Ten situations with conflicting behavior patterns were prepared in the questionnaire forms distributed to housewives in the communities, Each situation was followed by three types of questions: (a) Which behavior pattern would the community members choose in such a situation? (b) Which choice would be considered to be morally better? (c) Which choice would zou make? The type of social norm prevalent in the community will be shown primarily in the trend of the responses to question (c), while the responses to question (a) offers supplementary information in that this question inquires the opinion of the housewives concerning the community morals, The degree of consistency between the responses to questions (c) and (b) can be regarded as the extent to which this particular norm functions as a moral in the community. 4, Some of the main findings are as follows: (1) Most women think they should tell children of others to stop playing mischief. The degree of consensus on this moral is the highest in both communities, (2) Such morals as the succession of the family at the sacrifice of one's personal benefits, and the objection to superstitious ideas at the sacrifice of filial of are most resistant to change, (3) Such morals as choosing one's mate against the parents' wishes and telling the truth about neighborers will be more emphasized as urbanization advances (4) The defensive attitude of remaining silent in the presence of authority will be more resented by the people as they become more urbanized.
(1) General concept of stratum and criteria of classification (2) Social aspect of morality and the influence of the stratum (3) Social personality in urbanization process (4) Stratum groups and moral attitude of children The social stratum is considered to be a social status by occupation, school career, and income, and it is viewed structurally in terms of social stratification. Morality is regarded as one of social norms, but different from other social norms, because it is found in the internal condition of human being, that is, “operation of conscience” which supports man's behavior as well as the mode of external behavior.
“Morals” is considered indispensable for human beings in their socal life, but its connotation and constitution remain undefined. The present paper aims at clarifying this indefinite notion by structural analysis. In this approach “morals” is defined from the viewpoint of the behavioral sciences as part of standards of value-orientation in an actor or of basic valuesin cultures. In this sense, “morals” fulfils its function as an agent not only of social control but of normative delimitation of freely availableareas or ways of action being left in man's hands. From this consideration, the rational formula of “morals ” based upon the general features of values is given as follows: 1. “Morals” is the values that are useful for the individual or group integration of systems of action. It insures the identity of an individual and carries on harmonious social relations within a group. 2. “Morals” is composed of both cognitive and affective elements. 3. “Morals” is a kind of normative ideology which reflects people's existential propositions on their living world. 4. “Morals” is not categorical but relative ethics, the validity of which is decided by its suitability to the situation of action. In the next place, the structural formula of “morals” is shown as the conceptual scheme which is made up of two crossing axes named the axis of direction of systematization and of positivity. The first one divides “morals”. into two kinds, that is, that for the integration of personality and of social system. The second classifies “morals” into two categories, namely, the external and internal ones. The following are the sub-systems of “morals” obtained by intersecting of these axes. 1.SOCIAL NORMS which are for group integration and very positive, apply external sanction against the deviant members. 2.MORES which is for group integration but not so positive, have internal sanctionfor the infringers. 3. CHARACTERS which are for individual integration and very positive, have external control over an individual as ego-ideal. 4. VIRTUES which are for individual integration but not so positive, maintain internal control over an individual as super-ego. Finally, two significant properties of “morals” are mentioned. These are their self-evident nature that needs no proof of validity by the members of a group and their viscoelasticity as defined in rheology.
This study was aimed at clarifying characteristics and problems of the structure of the labor force of small and medium sized industries through analytical researches in an effort to obtain basic references for the appropriate orientation of future programs regarding training within industry. Materials mainly used include tables based on questionnaires collected from employees of these industries made under the name of “the Study of the Machine Industry” by the Hokkaido Prefectural Government's Comprehensive Development Planning Department. The author of this report participated in it as a researcher. Plant T selected as a subject of the study is one of the largest machinery manufacturing companies in Sapporo; if manufactures mining and construction machinery. The following results were concluded by this study: 1. A remarkable progress was noted as to the modernization of machinery and installations. However working processes are still dependent upon manual skill to a great extent. Moreover, in a portion of the manufacturing processes, conditions for the disintegration of job categories are developing, although not observed in actual cases. 2. As to a family background, those in descent from farming and fishing types of occupation constitute the largest proportion, but its percentage tends to decrease with younger ages ; as to the age bracket under the age of nineteen, the percentage stands only at six percent. The percentage of those descending from manufacturing and mining types of industries tends to increase rapidly. 3. As to the labor force of Plant T, the major strength consists of experienced workers with a background as factory workers at other plants and graduates employed immediately after finishing schools. As to the mobility of those experienced workers, the research indicates that in most cases they remained in the same category of jobs or moved within similar types of jobs, This low labor mobility is helpful in the preservation of shills. 4. On the other hand, most of workers with such vocational backgrounds worked on their farms as family members, moved among jobs of more than two categories. This group represents no more than ten percent of the total workers of Plant T. In such cases mobility does not contribute to the accumlation of skills, but contributes to the loss of skills. 5. The study of labor mobility with reference to the time they were employed reveals that about forty per cent of tho seemployed after 1955 were school graduates, in contrast to the fact that prior to that time the majority of workers employed consisted of those once employed by other plants. Skined workerr heretofore on the job are faced with the difficulties of labor mobility.
The teachers' personnel changes of the primary and high schools in T metropolitan area are analysed in this paper from the point of view of the teachers' Alma Mater. The reason why their “Alma Mater” became a subject in this paper is that the teachers' personnel changes seem to be influenced by their alumni associations organized by the teachers. This paper is a part of the research on the academic cliques (gakubatsu) which has come to be questioned recently. For this study are selected and analyzed 576 teachers of the primary schools and 855 of the high schools in comparison with the total teachers. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) The formal organization of their personnel changes is divided into two patterns; that is, the one is the organization of the primary school personnel and the other that of high school teachers. In the case of the former, the organization is formed as the permeation of the personal relations into them apt to be checked. out, but the function of its inferior units seems to be influenced by such relations based on the teachers' Alma Mater and private connections. In the latter, the function of the organization seems to be more permeated by the personal relations as compared with the former, because the principals keeping the daily contacts with the teachers have more power to change the teachers personnel. (2) On the whole, the teachers who belong to the big alumni associations have many opportunities to transfer to other schools, and these groups keep the high rate of personnel changes as compared with the minority groups. Particulary this tendency is clear in the case of high schools. (3) Generally many members of the big alumni associations are disposed to good schools, and this biased tendencies are not broken down by the periodical transposition of personnel. Especially in the high schools the members of the big alumni associations tend to move to good schools. (4) Finally both in the primary and high schools, there are big two alumni associations, and the members of these organizations tend to be exclusively disposed at their respective schools. These tendencies are certainly explained by the analysis on the following two points. The one is the analysis on the consciousness of “being alumni” and reali-stic needs to be promoted, acquire the prestige. The other is the analysis on the structures and functions of these alumni associations, based on these consciousness and needs and formed in the formal organization of education. It is very difficult to collect the data about the functions of the organizations of teachers' personnel changes, particulary about the dynamics of alumni associations having a tendency to form academic cliques (gakubatsu). The research is now being continued.
Ten years ago (1953), we carried out a survey on the chance of education for young laborers in Handa city, Aichi prefecture. This survey served as the basis of plans for the industrial education for junior and senior high school students and as well as for young men. The second (1962) survey was conducted to see how the condition has been changed in ten years and to discover new basis for future education for young laborers. The following are the main points in the survey: 1. An academic career and an occupation 2. Father's occupation and the view of occupational choice for his son and daughter 3. A change of occupation and the reason 4. The relations between income and family finances 5. A job in workshop, necessary knowledge, art and behavior for job, and educational chances in and out of the enterprise 6. Leisure-hours and cultural activities We have found the following results as compared with the points of ten years before (1953). 1. An increase of the rate of young working classes (15 to 18years old) in working population and concentration into these industries 2. An increase of commuters moving to the outskirts of Nagoya City 3. A decrease of change of jobs: Reason-A shift from workshop condition to mental uneasiness for job 4. A decrease of the difference in income among young laborers, and a rapid increase of those who do not give living expenses to their homes 5. For leisure-hour activities a striking increase of watching television instead of radio and a decrease of reading hours with an increase of watching hours.
What is the aim of group-making? From the standpoint of the classroomgroup, can it be limited only to creating the democratic learning situation in the -classroom, upgrading the learning capacity of the pupils in the class, or to forming a well-disciplined class? If the improvement of each case mentioned above is all that it aims at, its vision can be said to be too narrow, The final aim of groupmaking should lie in the all-round development of each pupil, which is also the ultimate end and purpose of our present-day education. Therefore, the cultivation of collectivismic individuality, should be aimed at in harmony and unity with the interests of both individuals and the group in spite of the problematie situation of the present day group egoism. At the same time each case already mentioned should be improved. Thus the present day conception of group-making has developed to such an extent as has become practically the same with that of the guidance of life-activites, containing the formation of collectivismic individuality as its kernel. With this end in view an attempt is made to clarify the development of the idea of group-making through the efforts to analyze the development of guidance of life-activities before and after world War IL For this purpose, the types of movements of guidance of life-activities are divided into the following two: Before the War 1) Discipline of ways of living 2) Training of behaviour 3) Expression of way of life After the War 1) Guidance 2) Special Curricular Activities 3) Expression of Way of life 4) Companionship 5) Extra-guidance of Morals 6) Education of Collectivismic living
Aim: “Gakushajuku” and tutors outside the formal school system of Japan have been so widely used to prepare the adolescent for entrance examinations that they are now recognized as one of the major problems of socio educational significance. In Hiroshima where this survey was taken this phenomenon is most prevalent. It was the aim of this study to make clear the actual situation by analyzing the attitudes of the children, the parents and of the teachers in using “gakushajuku” and/or tutors. Method: This survey was taken in Hiroshima in December, 1962. To carry out our purpose, we questioned children (9 to 17 years of age), parents and teachers in primary and secondary schools totaling approximately 7, 000. Findings: 1) Extent to which “gakushujuku” and tutors are utilized varies significantly with children's grade and sex, parents' occupation as well as schooling, . income and level of education expected of the children. 2) About thirty per cent of the parents who utilize them for their children point out the successfully passing of entrance examinations as the prime motive. 3) About half of the teachers whom we questioned regard this phenomenon as one of the serious socio-educational problems. 4) Many parents, if not most, look upon “gakushujuku” and tutors as a means of ensuring higher education for their children. “Gakushiljuku” is a small private informal school where children go to do their homework and prepare themselves for entrance examinations.