A regional development planning stemmed from a plan which stressed “resource development” aimed at increased food production, development of electric power and natural resources in Japan after World War U, and later its direction shifted toward a plan emphasizing “industrial development” However, in the process, the plan leaned toward economic development resulting in the acceleration of industrialization without consideration of improvement of social wel fare of people in the regions on one hand, and on the other a marked difference in the quality of development became evident among different regions. As a result, recently, an idea on the balanced economic and social development is being emphasized, and plans are being formulated, incorporating the idea to remove ill effects of overcrowdiness in existing large cities to correct regional differences. Significance of educational investment is reflected in regional development policy changes. However, in reality, regional differences in regard to educational investment still exist. Investment related to education per capita of many prefectures are less than one-half of that of Tokyo-to. Moreover, the concept of balance between economic and social development alienated within the educational investments of lateral investments connected with direct economic development (so called manpower investment) from lateral investments related to human welfare. There are tendencies to concentrate on the former (manpower investment). What is necessary today for the regional development plan is not the development of regions merely as an economic and administrative unit, but the enforcement of a plan based on the view to coarry out community development as a whole of region residents' life.
In putting the regional development into effect especially in this district, itis necessary to consider agricultural conditions. We promote the industrial development in this district in considering the change in agriculture. It is important to know the opinion of the farmers about the industrial development and about the future of agriculture. In the consideration of the educational program under such industrial conditions in the Tohoku district, the attitudes of the farmers themselves must be analyzed. The youth engaged in agriculture in Miyagi Prefecture was surveyed. In the first section, the problems and the method of approch were examined. The movement of the graduates from lower secondary schools was discussed in the next section. In the third section, the attitudes of those who have been clinging to agriculture were analyzed. The conclusion obtained was described in the last section.
Our purposes are to catch the influences that the process of industrialization have on the aspect of education, and to increase educational consciousness of it inhabitants. The study was made in the City of Tsurusaki. The questionnaires were sent out to all the heads of the household, third year students in junior high school, and sihth year elementary pupils, and we analyzed them. Things that were considered were social environment, environment for study, and student's attitude of life. we expected to express as much as possible the present situation, comparing present with past and characterizing each zone.
This report is a study concerning the relation between the industrial structure and higher education based on the 1950 and 1960 census. From 1950 to 1960, the industrial structure in all prefectures of Japan was changed with the same propotion and the same direction. In some profectures the graduates of university and college was increased but in other prefectures it was decreased. The increase or decrease in the prefecture was not correlated with numbers of employed persons.
The writer's job is to review most of the studies of sociology of education published in the past five relating to “Family and Education (Socialization)”, which is extremely vague and ambiguous. Until quite recently, “Family and Education” was one of the subdivisions of “Study of parsonality Development”. According to the writer's interpretation, this field includes the following: 1. A study of the educational function of family including child-t caring practices and the training of children; 2. A study of dynamic change of the fanctions of family; 3. A study of broken homes and their impacts upon socialization process: 4. A study of generational gaps and conflict; 5. A study of family in terms of social class and rural-urban differences. Roughly classified into four different categories, they are; 1. Discipline of children 2. Parent-child relationship, roles, and gaps 3. Family and juvenile delinquency. 4. Misc. In each category a few articles or books are reviewed in order to grasp the general trends of the studies. In the field of “Family and Education” studies are not ripe enough to distinguish one from another. Such aspects as socialization of adolescents, courtship, dating and marriage in terms of education need further exploration.
One of the factors. that checks the realization of meritocracy in Japan is to attach too much importance to a school career. A person with an inferior educational career, that is, no higher education or education in less famous institution, in most cases, has to give up his effort or ambition. As school careers are acquired through the rigid entrance examination, to select candidates through their school careers is, in a sence, rational. But, if one's ability continues to be evalated fixedly through his life by his educational background, school careers function rather as ascription than as achievement, for one's ability itself is changeable and the abilities required at school are not necessarily the abilities required in one's place of work. This report consists of two parts; One is to analyse the modification process of one's level of aspiration caused by his educational background. The other is to trace school records from primary school to high school. The study was done in 1964, sending questionnaires to 457 graduates of a high school in Hiroshima City. At the same time, we examined the school records of 1378 graduates of the same high school and 85 graduates of a high school in Usa City. The results of the two studies are as follows. First, the level of aspirations of those who entered first class universities are much higher than those who entered the other universities, though in this case, there was no difference between the school records of the two groups in high school. Secondly, even within twelve years until graduation of high school, school records are unexpectedly changeable.
The purpose of this study is to analze the result of the 1964 year Education Ministry Achivement Test for secondary school students in Hokkaido. The scores on the tests of the students whose parents belong to the following occupational groups (professional and technical, manegerial and official, clerical, agricultural, fishing, and mining), were chosen as the subjects of analysis. Procedure: We compute the scores an each of the fourty test items every one of the occupational groups and find the equation of the regression line of scores of each agricultural, fishing, mining or white collar group (an aggregate of occupational groups such as professional and technical, managerial and afficial, clerical.) Especially in agricultural and fishing groups, we compute the scores on each of the forty test items according to small schools (two classes and less) and large schools (6 classes and over in agricultural, 9 classes and over in fishing) and find the equation of the regression line of large school or small school. Result: 12 equations of the regression line (95 per-cent confidence interval) found above is classfied into four types presented in table I-II.
The population of highly educated women is increasing but there are many problems on the reconcilement of family and professional life. As housekeeping and childrearing are usually considered to be the women's duty in family life, married women in the profession have to do twofold work, namely housekeeping and that of their profession. It is difficult for them to continue this twofold work. Especially, it is an important problem for them to know how the employment of a mother affects her children in their mental health, the conclusion, however, is not yet definitive. And, many of them are obliged to give up their profession after having children. It seems to be an urgent issue to establish the conditions, under which the profession and the maternal duties are reconciled. Part-time employment, and extended maternity leave are considered to be ways that are helpful to the solution of this problem, but they themselves involve many issues.
There are many research findings on the determining factors involved in enrollment or attendance at educational institutions. Generally speaking, the rate of enrollment in a given society is determined by the interaction between two analytical units. They are (A) the number of the applicants which is the output of the families and (B) enrollment policy taken by the educational administration authorities. This paper attempts to show that the rate of enrollment could be explained systematically if we consider both (A) and (B) as a kind of social action. According to a general theory of action by Talcott Parsons and others, the components of social action are (1) a generalized goal or values (2) norms (8) mobilization of motivation (4) situational facilities. They stand in a hierachy which (1) values stand highest, (4) situational facilities lowest. Logically or theoretically any redefinition of a component of social action necessarily makes for a readjustment in those components below it, but not necessarily in those above it. By surveying the research literature which was relevant to each of these sets of variables involved in enrollment, we found it is very useful to take these components of social action as intervening variables between enrollment and other social variables.
(1) This paper intends to numerically explain the formation and distribution of engineering manpower in Japan, at the first stage of her industrialization ; 1870-1900. (2) In this paper, only the university-graduated engineers are considered, and as to the larger group of technicians they are not included in the object of this paper. (3) Formation: For the developing countries that are aiming rapid industrialization, one of the most important problems is to obtain the sufficient engineering manpower supply. Concerning the supply, there are various routes, and the selection about the routes decides the speed of industrialization. At the start of her industrialization, Japan, like other developing nations had to depend heavily on the emplayment of foreign engineers to meet the urgent needs. After two decades of educational efforts, the indigenous engineers, who were graduated from the Imperial University of Tokyo, became avairable for her manpower needs. (4) Distribution: These indigenous engineers were supplied mainly to the following three sections ; institutes of higher learning, government, and university. In the first stage of industrialzation, most engineers were supplied to the central government, since the government carried the most important and dominant role in economy. As to the types of engineers, civil engineers commanded the majority, who mainly engaged in the construction of the social overhead capital. (5) Mobility: In this period, the most frequent movement of engineers occurred between the government and the industry. Toward the end of the nineteent century, however, the mobility gradually slowed down, and most engineers bagan to lead all their professional life in the first job in which they enterd after graduation.