教育社会学研究
Online ISSN : 2185-0186
Print ISSN : 0387-3145
ISSN-L : 0387-3145
21 巻
選択された号の論文の18件中1~18を表示しています
  • 社会変動の視点か
    古屋野 正伍
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 5-13,en252
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article aims to present schematically the structure and function of the contemporary family, in relation to social change. One of the main purposes of this procedure is to suggest policies of future solution of the family problems.
    The contemporary stage is consciously differentiated from pre-modern and modern as well as future stage.
    The contemporary stage is characterized as the monopoly capitalistic structure, differentiating from the traditional, capitalistic, and socialistic structure. Social structure is also divided into four categories in order to break down the family structure and function more specifically. These categories are technology, group, institution and power.
  • 浜田 陽太郎
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 14-26,en251
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Japanese iural lite has advanced further than the pre-war level. But it is said that mother's life in rural areas do not take the new place, especialy on educational branch.
    Frequently, method of time-table in a day life use in that study, I have doubts for such method.
    Mother's conceptions which Japanese have inherited have a certain pattern. And it is a question to explain recognition between such conceptions and facts of mother's life.
  • 大阪府枚方市香里団地の調査から
    森口 兼二
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 27-44,en250
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have made since 1964 surveys on children and their mothers in Kohri New Town, Hirakata city situated in north-east part of Osaka Prefecture, in comparison with neighboring rural community and some control areas in Osaka city. This report aims at introducing summary of some parts of our research results which are concerning the basic characteristics of families living in Kohri New-Town. We have experienced rapid social change, above all in industrial structure, population mobility to urban areas and new- ways of life, since the close of World War II. While working population in the fields of primary industry has gradually decreased, population working in the second and tertiary indusries have rapidly increased. Many new-towns (which means newly constructed area composed of big modern apartments) have appeared to meet the needs for housing from families whose members found their jobs in cities, due to structual change of industries. Families living in New-Town are supposed to have symbolic characteristics of modern ways of life. The significance of the study on New-Town is in making clear some symbolic characteristics of social change in the present Japan.
    Summary of my report is as follows:
    Summary of my report is as follows:
    1) New-Town families have much more homogenities in family-structure, age distribution of members, occupation and educational background of husbands and wives, level of consumption and annual activities in family calender, than families in control areas. Namely, in New-Town, we can find higher percentage of nuclear families with two children, smaller range of age distribution with younger parents in average, much higher eduicational attainments of husband and wife, and higher percentage of professional job.
    2) Families of New-Town have fewer kinships and deep personal contacts with their neighbours within the school district. So, we can say, social relations in communities are categorized into three types. First, inrural type, contacts are broad and deep; second, in urban type, contacts are narrow and impersonal ; but third, in New-Town type, contacts are broad and impersonal.
    3) Families in New-Town have much newer accommodations for modern way of living.
    4) Annual activities on family calender in New-Town are concentrated around the mutual enjoyment and celebration of present family members, cut off from community activities and traditional festivals, some of which are concerning ceremonies for their ancestors.
    5) In New-Town, the role expectation to husband from wives are highest, but real role-taking by husbands is at the same level as control groups.
  • テレビと子どもを中心に
    木原 健太郎
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 45-56,en249
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently we can hear also in Japan the question that the relation between parents and children is going to be impeded by the invasion of television into the family. From this stereotyped opinion, already pointed out by Himmelcueit in England, I should like to go ahead.
    I attach more importance to the relation between parents and children, especially in “Leisure-boom”. Parents are attracted to television as a passive mean to spend their leisure time. On the other side, children, facing to severe parents and strict training for the entrance-examination, are fallen into the escaping feeling, which leads them to watch TV.
    Stimulated by the TV advertisement, children coax often humble things out of parents, but it is not so harmfull for parents. Parents also compla-in often that children's ability of reading has fallen by the influence of TV. But we can easily find many children who spend a considerable amount of time for watching TV and the same time for reading and study.
    These points above mentioned I should like to explain by some data and to point out the fact that cultural apathy of parents is reflected to children and human relations in the family are distorted by it.
  • 星野 周弘
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 57-70,en248
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Most investigators have pointed out that many of the causes of juvenile delinquency can be found in the family relationships in the lower class. They have also shown that individuals in the lower class are more likely to be arrested and covicted than those in the middle and upper socio-economic strata. Therefore, any social variable found more frequently in the family relationships in the lower class might erroneously be assumed to be related to delinquent behavior. For example, we can present the following several points which are considered to be characteristically and universally observable in the families of delinquents.
    First, there is considerably large discrepancy among parents regarding the way of home discipline. Second, the discipline is paid little attention to on account of poverty and of maternal laboring out of the family. Thirdly, analyses of children in these families show that many of such children are rejected by their parents. Fourthly, parents no longer have sufficient authority to exercise for the training of their children. And fifthly, parents' behavior often deviates from social norms. So, children's identification with their parents does not always mean the internalization of social norms.
    These characteristics in parents-child relationship, however, are not necessarily observed in the families of delinquents alone. The families of non-delinquents in the lower class also have the same characteristics of family relationships as those mentioned above. Therefore, we can not consider that these characteristics are related to delinquent behavior.
    To find out social variables which are observable only in the families of delinqents, we must discriminate the relationships in the families of delinquents from those of non-delinquents “for each class”.
    The purpose of this study is to find out social variables in family relationships which are related to delinquent behavior for each class. For this purpose, the research was conducted by means of interview. Subjects of the research are 246 delinquents arrested repeatedly and 281 non-delinquents in Miyagi Prefecture. In analyzing the data, chi square is employed to test significance of differences between distributions of social variables in the families of delinquents and those of non-delinquents for each class.
    Results are as follows:
    1) Undesirable family relationships are universal in the lower class, but they are not considered to be directly related to delinquent behavior.
    2) The lower class is characterized by distinctive values. But conformity with the lower-class values do not automatically violate legal norms.
    3) Law-abiding lower- and middle-class youth seek to affiliate with higher class than their class of origin. They also tend to rank others primarily in terms of style of life. So, they try not to fallen their families in public estimation by deviant acts. On the other hand, law-violating lower-and middle-class youngsters do not aspire to higher status and they rank others in terms of money alone. Furthermore, they do not mind getting their good reputation in the way of life.
    4) Home discipline is considered to be related to delinquent behavio by affecting each of the element of social control. Throughout social strata, it is observed to be a cause of delinquency that parents make no demand or make no effort to enforce their demand for children to stand their families high in public estimation.
  • 山村 賢明
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 71-77,en246
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Main interest of family study in the sociology of education is not in family itself but rather in socializing function of the family. The family is, so to speak, an independent variable for the students of sociology of education.
    Socialization is internalization of institutional values (culture) in a given society. Human beings live in the symbolic world, and basic values of each society are expressed by means of native language and transmitted generation to generation through everyday conversation, and we can also say that the mind comes to be moulded by the language.
    From this point of view, some problems pertaining to present day studies of socialization and family could be pointed out.
    1) The present day studies emphasize behavioral facts too much. The meaning implicated in or with the behavior should be taken up more seriously.
    2) The significance of structural variables needs to be reconsidered. Man is not directly determined by structural facts.
    3) Multiple choice prepared by the researcher is in use too easily. We should take interviewees' responses as they are. Categories should be found after the interview on the basis of the data collected.
    4) In the socialization study developmental stage (age) of the child does not necessarily have primary importance. To choose and set up the theme of socialization- what socialization about what institutional value- is essential.
    After all, we propose to pay more attention to the symbolic interaction theory. We think it will greatly contribute to the study of socialization and family in Japan.
  • 橋爪 貞雄
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 77-80,en245
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. The writer considers this symposium to be an attempt to find out a new methodology for the study of family in the sociology of education. He is rather skeptical if there are any educational-sociological methods as such. Any method, he thinks, can be educational-sociological so far as it is adopted by the researcher with a view to contributing to the improvement of education through a sociological study.
    2. The sociology of education is indeed a sociological study of educational phenomena, and should be approached as objectively as possible, that is, free from any dogmatic creeds or prejudices. But it is also a study of education by a sociological researcher with a clear awareness of his final contribution to the improvement of educational poblems. He is requested to have a perspective in mind in which he connects his present stu-dy with the historical realities of education, although this never means. that his study should be made with a sense of hasty applicability.
    The socializing functions of the family are an important area of education, but a mere sociological study of it does not prove educational-sociological unless the researcher is fully conscious of this kind of perspective.
    3. In the correlational method so common in sociological studies, the researcher, who tries to find a possible relationship between, for example, a child-rearing practice and the occupation of the family, is tempted to treat these variables separately as if they were two different items. But the truth is that he is only analyzing one and the same social entity, the social class, in terms of its two cultural aspects. The wholeness is given first, the reality is presented before him undivided, and the researcher is to analyze it from various aspects. In such an analysis, qualitative data are as important as the quantitative. This also suggests that the historical realities of education do not exist apart from the realm of sociological studies, and that a researcher in the sociology of education is requested to start his study with an analysis of this given entity rather than to make a sociological study and then try to connect it with educational needs.
  • 溝口 謙三
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 80-82,en244
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The family in modern society is changing rapidly and drastically. This is extremely essential in the study of the family. From the view point of socialization, even if the family is regarded as an independent variation, it is necessary to present some types of families.
    Although socialization is internalization of culture through verbal symbols, “the verb” functions in the specific situation. Accordingly, the verb would not be separate from status and role of the speaker, also from the social structure. “Life structure” will be a key concept concerning a solution of the problem.
    Whole culture is antecedent to sub-culture. But unless the relationship between them be clarified, positive research is impossible. In the methodology of family study, the place of empirical theory as well as general theory must be carefully scrutinized again.
  • 波多野 誼余夫
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 82-85,en244
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Reference group theory emphasizes that socialization implies the process of internalization of social norms: It is not merely the learning of a social behavior. Therefore, as Yamamura repeatedly puts it, a researcher who is concerned with socialization in family should begin his study with determining the subject of socialization to deal with.
    This assertion seems persuasive and highly suggestive under the present state of family research in Japan. We psychologists, however, feel that another aspect of socialization is equally important and worthwhile for serious consideration when a researcher plans his survey design. Soci-a lization is a kind of learning. Internalization by a child of values or norms of a group to which his family belongs (actually or subjectively) is a complex type of learning and the child-rearing behavior of parents is aimed at controlling this learning process. If socialization in family is described in terms of learning theory, then, it may be possible to integrate survey data on family and laboratory studies on social reinforcement and imita. tive learning.
  • 松原 治郎
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 85-87
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 松原 治郎
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 90-102
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 調査研究のためのひとつの試論
    山村 健
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 105-117,en242
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Socialization is defined as the process of individual's taking the adult role. Then, the first problem of this treatise is to clarify the adult role behaviors which constitute the adult role. As the adult role behaviors, there can be thought the following variables.
    1) basic habit of life 2) self-control 3) moral behavior 4) habit of labor 5) independent behavior 6) basic manner of human relation 7) intellectual skills 8) Sexual behavior 9) cultural behavior 10) economic behavior 11) political behavior.
    These eleven adult role behaviors are classified into two categories: the right behaviors and the obligation behaviors.
    On studying the process of socialization, we should take two different approaches. One is that of scope and the other is that of sequence. The central problem of the first approach is the role conflict between parents' role expectation and child's role taking. In the case of the second approach of sequence, it is useful to suppose two ideal types of socialization, the continuity type and the discontinuity type. In the continuity type, parents' adult role expectation is begun at early childhood and the continuity of role expectation is assured. But in the discontinuity type, the child is expected not the adult role but the child role. Therefore the adult role must be expected to child later at puberty suddenly. In this case, the discontinuity of role expectation is inevitable. Many acute problems which peculiar to adolescence are thought to appear in this latter case.
  • 回顧と展望
    石黒 毅
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 118-132,en241
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper attempts to delineate the range of the cultural in its width and depth, and evaluate its huristic value in understanding education.
    The first of the problems is examined by looking into some disputes over the conception of “superorganic.” This well-known, but often mistaken term, coined by H. Spencer, was first adopted by A. L. Kroeber. He used the term to refer to the suigeneris phenomenon, culture, which then (around 1917) was generally explained psycho-physically by social philosophers like L. Ward, G. Le Bon and F. Galton, It was against their interpretations of culture that kroeber was protesting.
    He asserts the cultural is not transmitted from generation to generation through heredity: culture is not organic, but it must be learned by the new-born: culture is superorganic, although its locus is in an individual organism.
    Having clarified some semantic confusions on the term culture, we examined various ways of defining culture. The Kroeber-Klukhohn categories were employed, and we found that such different definitions are to be understood as referring to and describing diverse facets of “real culture” in the Lintonian sense.
    We shall mention two consequences of this interpretation.
    As enumerative definitions like E. B. Tylor's of cutlure indicate, variables of socialization analysis should not be confined only to the emotive dimension alone, as most personality-culture researchers have thought (I. Child. J. W. M. Whiting, R. Sears and others, for instance), but they should be extended to the cognitive and evaluative dimension as well.
    Explicit and implicit level of culture, too, is of great importance. As B.L. Whorf has shown in his studies of language, in interpreting our Umwelt we are usually unaware of our implicit assumptions, cognitive, emotive, and evaluative. While one is learning the way of life, he is also inter-nalizing the implicit assumptions of his culture. Accordingly, if education means transformation, and educators want it to be effective, this implicit level of culture must be taken into consideration.
  • 価値・価値評価の概念の検討を通して
    武藤 孝典
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 133-145,en240
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study is to make clear functions of valuation in group thinking, which appears when the teacher gives group guidance to pupils, and thus to systematize in the perspective of the theory of action the value theories in sociology, cultural anthropology, and social psychology.
    To begin with, based on the examinations of various definitions of value, we define the value internalized in the actor-subject as follows: “A value is the structure of an individual's symbolism of the desirable which is implied by a set of preferential responses to his desiderata.” What is the core of this definition is the theory of symbolism. Just as a symbol has both expressive meanings and cognitive meanings inseparably, a value is the inferential construct, found in an actor-subject, both of expressive symbolism and of cognitive symbolism. Based on the results of our surveys, we categorized expressive symbolism into affective and desirous, cognitive symbolism into logical and normative.
    After the preparatory considerations stated above, we conceived the valuation process in group thinking as follows: the stages of the process are (1) already having values, (2) problematic, apposite values, (3) counter-poised or coexistent probable values, (4) probable, developed values, and (5) motives or stable affect-laden codes. The already having values of children usually exist in a closed state, under the social control of social norms functioning in the school, in the home, and among children themselves. There fore, the planning of such valuation process in group think-ing aims at making children create open possible values for themselves, through their own group thinking under the proper guidance of a teacher. And the valuation process of a child who takes part in group thinking, is closely connected with his selective trending in needs and values.
    Talcott Parsons develops his theory of symbolism, so to speak, connecting the cultural system with the social system. But, in this study, we try to develop our theory of symbolism connecting the cultural system with the personality system.
  • 陶磁器産地における事例
    岩内 亮一
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 146-160,en239
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this report is to inquire the changing aspect of the role the secondary vocational school plays in ceramic produciny district, in relation to the technical development and economic circumstances in the district. This trial aims to quest how the secondary vocational school has been efficacious in the industrialization of the pottery or ceramic industy which has been inherited from the pre-modern stage of this country.
    Through the intensive interviewing survey the following results were obtained.
    1) At the first stage of the establishment of the school, when the producing techniques were not mature enough to meet the increasing demand for the products from trading wholesalers, the school played an important part in the improvement of the production facilities.
    2) As the trading whalesalers outside the district began to produce on a large scale and developed adequate equipment for mass production, most graduates of the school remained in their home district and maintained their inherited occupation.
    3) Medium sized factories, which appeared in and around the district, provided the main labor market for the considerable numbers of the gra-duates, who worked as technicians.
    Recently, in proportion to the increasing number of studlnts from the parental background other than the ceramic shop owners, many graduates tend to go out of the district in search for their suitable job. outside of their home district.
  • 柳 治男
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 161-176,en238
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Public education in modern Japan has been highly centralized in system and bureaucratic in administration since the beginning. The reformation after World War II brought the democratic educational system in Japan, but it's ideas have not been sufficiently brought into existence and especially in recent years we see somewhat backward movement toward centralization of education on the part of the governmental policies, though in a different way from the one found before the reformation.
    But the bureaucratic organization of educational adminitration is changing ceaselessly, especially under the rapid social change in Japan after the war. In this article, the change in organization of local educational administration is characterized as bureaucratization, and the focus is put on the relationship between educational administration and the increasing educational expectations of farmers for their childen, as they cannot help seeking their jobs outside the agriculture under the present conditions.
    Now, the irrationality found in bureaucratic organization of education, which is closely related to the traditional power structure as a stabilizer in rural community, is disappearing along with the change in rural social structure and the newly emerging charcteristics of farmers. While the foundations for more rationalized bureaucratic structure in education are being provided steadily, the necessity for centralized educational policies on the national level is increasing. We unavoidably are confronted with the problem of bureaucratization in the organization of local educational administration.
  • 波多野 誼余夫, 波多野 梗子
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 177-189,en237
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Research findings concerning social class differences in mental illness were reviewed. These studies made significant contributions to social-psychological analysis of social class characteristics as well as to social etiology of mental illness.
    Many studies, e. g., Hollingshead&Redlich, clearly indicated that there was a negative correlation between social class indices and the prevalence of mental illnenss.(The lower class showed a high rate of prevalence) Three types of explanations were suggested to account for the difference: Some researchers examined “drift hypothesis”, which reduced differential prevalence to heredity factors and asumed downward mobility of the mentally ill. Evidences were not consisistent on this point. Others tried to demonstrate social class differences in diagnosis and treatment. These factors, though seemed to have some effects, were probably not the only ones that made the difference.
    The third explanation, which was the most attractive for educational sociologists, was that social class sub-culture influenced socialization process of a child and social interaction of family members. It seemed reasonable to interprete the findings, especially the one by Myers&Roberts, as follows:
    1) In class III (lower-middle class) parents and teachers expect and encourage a child's success or upward mobility so intensely that, in some instances, social stress and tensions are produced, which lead to maladjustment, but generally they develop a child's high achievement motive.
    2) In class V (lower-lower class) lack of adequate nurturant and educating agents develops socially deviant or “maladjustive” patterns of behavior, which bring about mental illness in the most severe cases.
  • 社会的距離に関する実証的研究 (1)
    石田 剛
    1966 年 21 巻 p. 190-205,en236
    発行日: 1966/10/10
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The study tries to get various infomations on how Japanese look to American students as well as on evaluating the social and psychological distance between Japan and the United States. Systematic framework revised from the one which was constructed for nation's prestige index measurement says that knowledge, feeling and understanding of another country are aspects of a nation's attitude to that country. Feeling and understanding have certain amount of scale in measuring these aspects of a nation's attitude but knowledge does not. On knowledge we know just it is right or wrong. Apart from the components on measuring the nation's attitude, you may say that someone constructs a nation's attitude from vague image of a country. I suspect that this kind of image might be applied for the nation's attitude when a respondent does not have any idea on a specific aspect of a nation. Thus, according to my frame of reference of evaluation system of a nation, the attitude which has such three aspects is put parallel with social evaluation as I defined or so called synthetic evaluation of a nation. The attitude and the social evaluation are interrelated in its nature.
    Besides the evaluation system, the study has tried to construct a social distance and psychological distance between the nations. Here we suppose that some nations might be evaluated highly because of emotional feeling, but others do not. Then, in a distance system it is determined that the former constructs a psychological distance and the latter a social distance. Findings: The American students have evaluated Japanese relatively highly, but from analysis of the difference among the aspects of the attitude we know that their score on knowledge is higher than the one on feeling. From social evaluation of Japan we could know that Japan is now ranked in a group of the second class developed countries in the world but after ten years from now she gets a position among the first class developed countries. The psychological distance between Americans and Japanese is very close, but the social distance is not.
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