教育社会学研究
Online ISSN : 2185-0186
Print ISSN : 0387-3145
ISSN-L : 0387-3145
27 巻
選択された号の論文の17件中1~17を表示しています
  • 役割・機能の再検討
    市川 昭午
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 4-18,en239
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This essay will attempt to present some of the reasons why we have come to reconsider the function of the school in relation to social change.
    Sociological problems are created when educational system comes to occupy a strategic place in an industrialized society and the school is regarded as a special agency responsible for educational tasks of that society. Therefore, we can say that industrialism gave rise to the sociology of education as a specialized field of study and, in fact, functionalism was par excellence the early sociologists' approach to educational institutions.
    Nevertheless, educational sociologists had shifted their attention gradually tow ards the micro level problems such as the internal structure and organization of the school and the social relations inherent in educational activities, assuming that the school was performing its function as smoothly as expected.
    Since World War II, every nation has realized the significance of education and owing to that, the social function of the school came into the limelight again. Sociologists have come back to the macro level problems with confidence that the school could meet their expectations as it used to.
    However, after the experience of the past two decades, we have come know that educational investment is not a royal road to economic development, and educational attainment does not always assure a democratic society. It is now evident that the interrelationship between education and the wider social structure is far more complex than was at first supposed.
    And what is more, we cannot but admit that dysfunction of the school is increasing all over the world. We should also look carefully into the existence of a gap between role expectation and real function of the school. Besides, development of knowledge industry and introduction of lifelong education scheme have obscured the feature of the school compared with other educational forms.
    As a result, since the late 1960's an idea reconsidering it's function has been formulated and there is every indication reexamining the social role of the school in a new situation.
    What is necessary today in reviewing the function of the school is to present an orderly and coherent analysis of new social roles for the school in a post-industrialized society.
  • 溝口 謙三
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 19-30,en238
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    A school in community should generally have a close and good connection with people there for its good management which is further supported by the people.
    But this connection tends to be broken up by a great change in life patterns in community caused by the recent economic growth.
    A school and the people in a small rural community in particular have kept a better relation between them, because they have made much effort to promote mutual benefits; the one provided with such services as performed by the teachers to act as a consultant or guide to the people for their recreational activities, meetings and movements of various kinds; the other supported the school for its maintenance with their money and services. Thus, the school played as a community center, and fitted itself to the life patterns of the people in rural districts.
    The distribution of children inhaited in districts was vastly changed accompanied by a great deal of urbanization and depopulation with a result that many schools were newly built in cities on one hand and many schools were demolished or consolidated in the countryside on the other.
    A close relation between school and community which have been broken up by population movement, should be reconstructed but with a different, newly fitted type to changed life patterns.
    A school district in Japan since the Meiji Restoration has been coincided to a government district. When a government district is enlarged by some reasons of governmental efficiency, a school district is to be enlarged not by people's conveniences.
    We are now confronted with a new question to rebuild a fresh school district suitable for the people inhabited at changing life-circle.
    This new school district planned by the people and the school is supposed to be reconstructed systematically on the core of chil dren's life environment.
    We often hear the children having difficulties to go to school because of the enlargment of the attendance district as a result of the schoolconsolidation.
    In such a case, more school boardings for children should be required for these districts. These facts, which have never happened in our history of school eduction: the entire life of boys and girls is away from home and occupied by the school from morning to night, beyond the ability and control of the teachers. Therefore, we must reconsider the functions of the school.
    A new relation between school and community should be reconsidered, according to the changing environment of life and educational-facilities in, school and home as well.
  • 河野 重男
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 31-39,en237
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present article aims to consider the contemporary tasks which educational administration should fulfil to meet urbanization and educational innovation exerting marked influence upon it.
    Urbanization is a making it necessary for educational administration to fulfil the following tasks:
    (1) To make a readjustment of conditions in the light of the fact that urbanization tends to polarize schools in the form of educationally advantaged and disadvantaged ones.
    (2) To take a drastic measures to reduce the regional inequalities from the viewpoint of social justice.
    (3) To re- appraise the unit of educational administration to meet changes in demographic structure, the expanding living sphere of people and the improvement in the quality of education.
    (4) Individual schools should develop their own curriculum.
    To meet the educational innovation, it is necessary, in the light of the tendency of school systems to be retarded in adapting themselves to innovation, that the conventional practice and ideas of educational administration be changed in terms of its whole aspects ranging from school equipment and facilities to timeschedule and in-service training of teachers.
    In conclusion, contemporary tasks educational administration are those of decision-making based on the results of the comprehensive examination of various problems facing education today.
  • socializeesの視点からの学校段階の検討
    萩原 元昭
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 40-50,en236
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    When the socializing function of the school is to be analyzed, approaches are generally made dealing with the characteristics of the school as a transient group in comparison with the functions of the family and occupational groups.
    In this paper, instead of dealing with the school in general, attention is focussed upon different levels of the school, and from the standpoint of those who are socialized (socializees) some basic problems related to the continuity of socializing agencies are to be clarified.
    At first, the concept of socialization is defined; a creative process of socializees as makers of a new society is discussed; furthemore, the importance of formal socialization at the level of language rather than informal socialization is stressed. Secondly, in order to make clear several points related to socialization at different levels of schooling, ratio of the graduates of elementary, secondary and higher educational institutions is to be studied.
    There arises the problem of guaranteeing equal opportunities to give education beyond junior high school level. Finally, an actual survey which investigated the developmental changes of “an ideal person” and “occupational values” of college graduates is to be introduced to clarify some questions concerning the changes which take place at school in their behavior patterns and values which have been formulated at home and the impact which the school gives to socializees at different levels of education.
    The findings are summarized as follows:
    1. It is at the senior high scool or at the university that they show increasingly autonomous or competent orientations.
    2. As to the occupational values, at the senior high school differentiation takes place between status-income-seeking orientation and maturity- society orientation. We find more of the former case in the economics majors and the latter in the literature majors.
    3. Similarity is found between faters and sons as to their “ideal person” in their university days. Their rankings of the orientations are (1) autonomous (self- control) orientation (2) diligent orientation and (3) status- seeking orientation.
    In short, it is at the senior high school and the university that they overcome contradictions and transform their values and behavior patterns which have been formed through family, elementary school and junior high school.
  • 社会化困難性をめぐって
    柴野 昌山
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 51-64,en235
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Changes of the School Goals
    Recentry the contents of the school goals have been much changed. These changes depend on the changes of the school roles in the industrialized society. Secondly, the changes of the school roles come from the changes of social expectations for the educational training. Today school is only an adaptive institution which follows social change; therefore, school has been turned into the center of a cultural lag and social conflict.
    2. Aspects of dysfunctions. It is true that school is an effective agency of socialization and an allocative agency of participants. However, social functions of school are mostly not carried into effect. They bring in unanticipated consequences which are called latent functions of variables by R.K.Merton. We use the following conceptual scheme for the analysis of the effects of socialization in the schools.
    In Aspect A, successful socialization will be performed, but Aspect C is the unanticipated dysfunctional consequence which is incompatible with the school goals or moral expectations. On the other hand, Aspect B is the by-product which intensifies the social integration and the morale of the school. Aspect D has a deviant and antisocial culture in nature.
    3. Socialization pattern in the School.
    We are able to analize more clearly the socialization process in the school by the adoption of the concept prisonization; internalization of the general culture, norms and customs in the prison community.
    In the school, socialization is effective in the beginning term to produce conformity of behavior. In the middle term, socialization functions are reduced and deviant behaviors of participants increase.In the last graduation term, resocialization functions of the school come into effect and conformity also increases in number.
  • 親の政治的立場を中心として
    片岡 徳雄
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 65-78,en234
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to report the distributions of expectations and demands of parents to the education in public schools in to- day's Japan.
    According to a theory of some scholars of educational history and law, children are primarily protected and educated on the basis of the parental prerogatives, and parents trust the school- teachers with them. This is called “the theory of the educational right of people”, which is against “the theory of the educational right of state”. In this theory, it seems that educational freedom is important but educational control is neglected. In social life, however, most parents may have different expectations and demands to the education in public schools. They may have different expectations and demands to the education in public schools. They may have the same opinions about some problems, but hold opposite ones about other problems, which should be arranged in the public schools as the social institution on the basis of the social order or social norms.
    We made 26 questions in the questionnaire entitled “Research on Opinions about Education- in Public Schools”, which were responsed by 532 subjects sampled from six groups from March to April, 1971.
    Upon this investigation I have ascertained the following.(1) Many opinions are classified into 5 groups ; NC (neutral consensus), R C (right-consensus), L C (left-consensus), R O (right-opposition) and L O (left-opposition). For example, in R C group there is consensus supported more.by the progressive parents than the conservative. Opinions in L O group are supported by the progressive parents but opposed by the conservative.(2) There are some agreements about taking up liberalism, democracy and pacifism as the subject-matters.(3) In R O and L O groups, there are some opposite opinions about taking up the following as the subject-matters; the union of workers and the demonstration of people in general (in L O), and the respect to the Emperor and the importance of Independence Day of Japan (in RO).
    As a result of the analysis, we have arrived at the conclusion that we cannot approve the theory of the educational right of people. It might be said that educational freedom of parents must not be controlled by political power but that children in public schools should be educated while educational expectations and demands of parents being controlled to some extent.
  • 麻生 誠
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 79-89,en233
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    “The School's Future Image” is a kind of “the definition of situation”(W. Thomas). It gives meaning to the presnt situation.People will react to the meaning attached to the image of the school and then it will be gradually realized. More precisely it has the function as “the fulfilling prediction”. From this viewpoint I tried to analyze the “The School's Future Image” which was reflected in some scholarly works in the field of Futurology. All of fourteen thesis in Futurology referred to the school. The fact supports the important role of the school in future society. Trying to analyze these images from the four dimensions A, G, I, L, I found four “critical path” that comprise the ideal image of the school in future society.
    First in “G” dimension, the problem is the dilemma of which to give priority “Mass Education” or “Elite Education”. From “A” dimention, the question is, with the great rise in the number of teachers will the qualty increase or decrease. In “I” dimension, which is more desireable the open organization or closed organization of education. Finally in the sphere of “L” dimension, should education be approached from the angle of mechanization or that of humanism.
    Within the integration of these four dimensions lies the ideal image of “The Future School”. Below I have listed a number of keys to the resolution of these dilemmas.
    i) “The Information Comunity”, acting as the intermediary, will integrate mass education and elite education.
    ii) The new type of association acting as the system organizer in drawing together the amateur instructors and professional teachers.
    iii) The school as “an adhorcracy” which controls expanded educational opportunity.
    iv) To create a circle of expression and human contact-the new type educational unit which will utilize teaching machines to attain the best possible result and provide an identical living experience for all.
  • 小学区制下における民衆の適応行為形態を中心に
    阪本 忠一
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 92-104,en232
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 農民教育分析の一視角
    赤司 政雄
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 105-116,en232
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • K・マンハイムの場合
    久冨 善之
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 117-130,en232
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • アメリカにおける都市・貧困・学校
    阿久津 一子
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 131-144,en231
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • レジャーの教育社会学的研究試論
    相原 次男
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 145-159,en231
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 看護婦学校と看護婦「専門職」化
    羽江 忠彦
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 161-166
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 田中 一成
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 167-172
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 武内 清
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 173-178
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 平田 仁宏
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 179-190
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 浜田 陽太郎, 松本 良夫
    1972 年 27 巻 p. 191-203
    発行日: 1972/10/15
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
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