教育社会学研究
Online ISSN : 2185-0186
Print ISSN : 0387-3145
ISSN-L : 0387-3145
29 巻
選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
  • 藤本 浩之輔
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 4-17,en211
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The community has gone through tremendous changes in the process of urbanization. These changes bring about the transformation of the “play, ” which, in turn, exercises significant influence on the personality formation of the child. In this paper, we try to frame this theme by investigating the transformation of children's play and by considering the matter of providing the “play-space” as an essential factor for the restoration of play.
    First, we made a comparative case study of the play-space between 1955 and the present in a given elementary school district, which is the sphere of children's everyday activities. The results showed the fact that the decrease in the playspace immensely influences the place for everyday play activities and the patterns of the play, as well as the structure of the peer group.
    Secondly, we discussed some concrete ways for providing the play-space to activate the play in children's lives: for examples, programming the facilities such as children's parks and children's community centers; restoring the function of the road as the play-space; and utilizing a school as the space. Lastly, from the viewpoint of children's benef its, we pointed out that community should be developed taking into consideration not only the architectural aspects of the comfortable living space but also the space for personality formation.
  • 松浦 勲
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 18-32,en211
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    From the middle of the 1950's, the process of rapid economical growth has brought great changes on the background of child socialization. In this paper, we investigate the two items (1) the change of the relation between community and family life and (2) the change of family type and family life.
    The isolation of family in the community is one of the current problems, but this seems transitional. We should, therefore, pay attention to the new relationship between the community and family life. Moreover, there are tendencies that the family size becomes smaller because of the declining birth rate and the increasing number of nuclear families and that the number of workingparents' families is increasing. It also becomes difficult to transmit and create the children culture because of the change of peer groups, especially, the lack of multi-age groups. In terms of the relation between mother and child, their close relationship is usually strengthened and it prevents the independence of the child. In the working parents' family, however, the unstable mental conditions of both mother and child are often found out. This does not mean that the relation between moth er and child always depends on quantity of mother's contact with child. Rather, mother's consciousness about family has a great influence on the child. It has some relation to the views of man and woman and role differentiation in contemporary family. Therefore we should pay attention to the changes of role and consciousness in a working parents' family.
    The employment of women is increased by social demands, but its problems are solved by individuals. This causes the difficulties in a working parents' family. Under this condition the problem about children will become more serious.
    However, there is the new trend that the mother-and-mother and family-andfamily relationships in the community is developed through these children problems.
  • 木全 力夫
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 33-46,en210
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate urban residential circumstances in relation tochildren's activities, and to scrutinize their educational problems.
    First, the author discusses residential conditions and children's living space in the urban areas and the degenerating state of the living environment.
    Secondly, the author points out the characteristics of children's living systems from the viewpoint of their outdoor play behaviors.
    Thirdly, the influences of the living circumstances on children's physical development (physical growth and physical strength) are examined.
    Finally, the effects of pollutionand nuisance in the urban. areas are considered with reference to children's general health conditions, physical development, and educational environment. The data are obtained from the results of several investigations.
  • 武藤 孝典
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 47-58,en209
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The problem of this study is to scrutinize the effects of the release from house work on the socialization of today's Japanese children.
    To clarify this problem, we formulate the theoretical framework as follows: the children's experiences in house work are taken as the intervening factor between the independent factors and the dependent ones. The independent factors are the production-labor structure in the community and the mother's educational consciousness and actions. The intervening factor in this frame is the children's actual experiences in house work and their real consciousness about it. The dependent factors are the effects of the children's experiences in house work on the developments of their life consciousness.
    One of the main conclusions is that the children with low consciousness about house work and low experience in it tend to be favorable to “good-pay jobs” in their career decisions.
  • 「過疎化」段階と「新」通達をめぐって
    若林 敬子
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 59-72,en208
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    A school district means. the basic administrative unit within which local schools are controlled, as well as the attendance district. In the U. S., because of their peculiar natureof public service, school districts are generally treated as quasicorporations, and in some cases, they are determined by the courts and established as municipal corporations. Thisnature of school district is not the same among the States.
    In Japan, school districts are municipalized, and thus, after municipal reorganizations (“Cho-son Gappei”), many elementary and secondary schools are combined. for the new community development. The reorganization of school districts has been promoted in the underpopulated areas for the last ten years. But the Ministry of Education noticed in September, 1973, that the reorganization of school districts is not promoted any longer.
    In conclusion, the followingassumptionsare suggested.
    (1) By municipal reorganizations, municipal areas become unsuited to living areas.
    (2) Movements against the reorganization of school districts are based upon locality, public interests and community egoism.
    (3) The school district system in Japan should be compared with the U. S. system.
    (4) Community should be developed on the basis of the school district system.
  • 古銭 良一郎
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 73-83,en208
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, the author tries to f ind out how the concept of community is. learned in the contemporary elementary and junior high schools in Japan and. what problems exist in its learning. For this purpose, the Curriculum Guidelines. prescribed by the Ministry of Education and several textbooks of social studies inspected by the Ministry according to the guidelines were analyzed. The followings are the main findings.
    In elementary schools;
    (1) The pupils' own communities are mainly studied. Therefore, generalizations on arious communities are almost impossible.
    (2) The rural-urban differences in the way of living are neglected.
    (3) The significance of community in our lives and the desirable model of community are not taken into account.
    (4) The concept of community is not taught as an autonomous social system.
    In junior high schools;
    (1) The desirable model of community is not taken into account.
    (2) The analyses of the problems specified in citiesor villages are rather superficial.
    (3) The historical process through which the community has been transformed into the autonomous social system is not studied. In conclusion, it is pointed out that, in the present curricula, it has been neglected to consider the community as a social system which has been historically transformed and to set it up as thedesirable model of community.
  • 溝口 謙三
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 84-96,en207
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Once many teachers lived in the neighborhood of their schools and some communication with neighbors. But recently teachers tend to live outside the communities because development of transportation has enabled them to commute from distant places. As an instance, 70 percent of the teachers of town schools use buses and cars to attend their schools.
    Since many teachers live far away from their schools, they have less contact with people in the communities where their schools are located. According to my investigation, 30 percent of the 110 school teachers think that they have “scarcely” any communication wlth the community members, and 57 percent “not so much”.Thus most activities of teachers are confined within their schools and are seldom extended to the communities.
    But it should be noticed that 67 percent of the 110 school teachers realize that they “must positively seek” communication.
    So it is necessary that, confronted with the changes in the teachers' modes of life, we should conceive a new image of education and f indout a new relationship between school and community.
  • 不破 和彦
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 98-107,en206
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Community is now standing at an important turning point. Under the present conditions, thestudy of “Community and Education” is stagnant, theoretically and positively. The reason is that we do not still establish a dynamic frame of analysis.
    We can find thetwo approaches to the study concerning the change of community and education, the educational approach and the sociological approach. It is necessary to clarify the frame of analysis integrating the two approaches. We must, therefore, clarify (1) the fundamental subjectof “Community and Education, ”(2) a concept of “education, ” and (3) the relations between national power that promotes educational policies in accordance with the law and people in the community, especially from the classical point of view.
  • 新富 康央
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 108-120,en206
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The problem of Brain Drain is closely related to the sociology of higher education and thesociology of science. Because of its current-topical nature and the scarcity of public concern, the problem of Brain Drain has seldom been explored as an object of study in our country. The purpose of this article is to, attempt a sociological analysis of this problem.
    To solve this problem, its sociological phases are specified as the followings: social mobility; communication system of science; and socio-historical. In this, article, social mobility is mainly explored and both qualitative and quantitative analyses are attempted.
    In the qualitative analysis, which will be an introduction to the quantitative. analysis, the nature of Brain Drain is clarified. In the quantitative analysis, the levels and the real states of various countries are explored on the basis of the 1971 report on Brain Drain by OECD. This may reveal the mechanism and function of Brain Drain.
    In conclusion, we can consider the United States as Brain Gain, Canada as Intermediate, England as Brain Drain and Sweden as Re-migration.
    Further study will be needed from the viewpoint of the sociology of science.
  • パーソニアンモデルによる歴代閣僚及び財閥エリートの比較分析
    波平 勇夫
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 121-134,en205
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study reanalyzed the data used for the writer's doctoral dissertation which was submitted to New York University. On the basis of Parson's theory on social structure and Keller's theory on functional elites, this study attempted to investigate two major elite groups of Japan-cabinet ministers and Zaibatsu leaders. The. former included the ministers between the first Ito cabinet (1885) and the second Sato cabinet (1970); the latter included the top leaders of four major zaibatsu enterprises-Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, and Yasudaat six points in time: 1922, 1929, 1937, 1945, 1955, and 1966.
    The research problems were: (a) Are there any changes in the status characteristics of cabinet ministers and Zaibatsu leaders before and after the end of World War II?(b) Are there any differences in the status characteristics between cabinet ministers and Zaibatsu leaders? (c) Are there any differences between those two elite groups in the degree of change in the status characteristics?
    From the theories stated above, the following hypotheses were derived: (a) Cabinet ministers and Zaibatsu leaders after World War II will be more universalistic-achievement oriented than those ministers and leaders before the end of the War; (b) Cabinet ministers will be more particularistic-ascription oriented than Zaibatsu leaders; (c) The degreeof change in the characteristics of elite status will be greater in the case of cabinet ministers than in the case of Zaibatsu leaders.
    The results confirmed the first two hypotheses but not the last one. Though this study was limited in the scope of samples and the nature of data sources, it may be concluded that (a) status characteristics of Japanese elites have changed between the pre- and the post-War periods from more particularistic-ascription oriented to more universalistic-achievement oriented and (b) political elites aremore particularistic-ascription oriented than business elites.
  • 勤労青少年のサークル活動調査から
    柴野 昌山
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 135-145,en204
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aimed to clarify the relationship between group participation of young working people and the total change of personality from the viewpoint of the desirable change of the self-concept. In this study the desirability of the self-concept was measured in terms of the discrepancy between two definitions of the self: the perceived self and the ideal self.
    The directional change in the perceived self toward the ideal self and the high correspondence between the perceived and the ideal self, which were undertaken uniformly after the positive participation in group activities of young people, were considered as the characteristics of the desirable self-concept. We defined this directional change as personality growth.
    It was found that the more an individual tended to participate in voluntary groups (circles), the greater was the personality growth, when the group itself indicated the social atmosphere of acceptance and was recognized to be the normative reference grotip by the individuals.
  • 教育社会学における言語研究の位置づけ
    中野 由美子
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 146-160,en203
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The studies of socialization in educational sociology have mainly attempted to explain thedifferences among social classes in socialization process. But the studies of verbal and non-verbal signals, which represent the concrete content of socialization, have been neglected. Among these studies, this article focuses on the micro analysis of socialization process.
    The purposes of this article are as follows:
    (1) To introduce the study of class and language in England by B. Bernstein and others.
    (2) To report the author's investigation on class and language in Japan in com parison with the study in England.
    (3) Topoint out the problems on socio-linguistic analysis of the Japanese language in comparisonwith the English language, and to suggest the analytical framework for these problems.
  • 平野 貴子
    1974 年 29 巻 p. 161-172
    発行日: 1974/11/01
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
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