教育社会学研究
Online ISSN : 2185-0186
Print ISSN : 0387-3145
ISSN-L : 0387-3145
39 巻
選択された号の論文の15件中1~15を表示しています
  • 逸脱のドラマの社会生活への影響
    宝月 誠
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 5-17,en301
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Some people say that labeling thory has already been accepted as “normal science” of deviant approach and there is nothing new to delineate it now. Others say that it has some defects, such as conceptual ambiguity, ideological bias and the difficulty of application to empirical research, and therefore, we must abandon it today.
    Are these criticisms correct? Can we say that we appreciate the uniqueness. of labeling theory exactly? The essence of its theory is the interaction approach which seeks to analyse social life dynamically by using the terms, such as significant worlds, interaction and process. Reconsidering the labeling theory from the interactionist viewpoint, we can easily understand that it seeks to analyse the complex and dynamic social interaction dramas of deviance which are performed by labeler, labelee, and audience. These dramas include degradation drama, monodrama (self-reflexive drama), indifferent drama and conflict drama.
    Our social life, especially significant world, is influenced by these deviant dramas. The influence is not limited to deviant amplification. There are other influences, such as deterrence of deviance, intensification of social control, elaboration of significant world, emergence of new meaning and normalization of deviance. We should now release the labeling theory from the narrow locus which tends to be concentrated on deviant amplification.
  • 徳岡 秀雄
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 18-31,en302
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Juvenile justice policies had been developing smoothly up until the 1960's, backed up by the rehabilitation ideology. But, they have been drastically changing for two decades. The rehabilitative idea and its institutions supported by traditional liberals have come under heavy cross-fire from labeling theorists, just desert liberals, and deterrence conservatives.
    The latest reforms are summarized;(1) Juvenile offenders should be processed in the same way as adult cases, (2) The medical model must be removed, which is exemplified by the growing interest in offences (not offenders), mechanized justice to eliminate discretions, and so on.
    The equal treatment between juveniles and adults is facilitated by the disappearance of childhood. The concept of childhood is becoming extinct because of mutual causalities of the following factors.
    The escalation of an adult-centered society forces children to become precocious and independent early. The children's rights movement claims equal rights with adults, but rationalizes the lesser protection of children in the aging of society. Popularization of Freudian idea has changed the concept of children and the method of child-rearing. Transition from printed media to TV media enables the undifferentiated accessibility to, and the total disclosure of, all kinds of information monopolized by adults before. On the other hand, childish adults are increasing. So, the boundary between childish adults and adultlike children is blurring.
    The decline of the rehabilitative ideal is a good example of the self-fulfilling prophecy. Pessimistic atmosphere has become prevalent after President Kennedy's assassination. American reliance on establishment in general, and on the juvenile justice system has lapsed. Public opinion which became disap-pointed in the rehabilitative function of correctional institutions has undermined the real activities of these systems.
    The malleability of human character is a dependent variable of the contemporary concept about human nature. Present juvenile offenders are next to incurable because almost all people have lost their faith and hope in their corrigibility. It is only with the rejection of social fatalism implied in the notion of unchangeable human nature that the tragic circle can be broken.
  • その理論的考察
    熊谷 文枝
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 32-42,en303
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Violence is abundant in our society, and we are socialized into violence since we were born. Mass media such as TV dramas and movie films significantly affect the individual's attitude toward violence. The excessive exposure to these violent scenes undoubtedly results in an increase in violent behavior.
    There are three basic approaches in theories of violence. They are biological, psychological, and sociological theories. Firstly, biological theories of violence state that violence is instinctive and human beings, men in particular, have come to be aggressive in the process of evolution. Secondly, psychological explanations are represented by such orientations as the Freudian superego and the frustration-aggression theories. Finally, sociological theories of violence claim that violence is a product of social structure and social learning.
    It is not too difficult to propose some plausible measures to alleviate violence. It is, however, far more difficult to have our goal materialized. As the very first step, we must realize that violence is neither pathological nor deviant, but is rather a natural outcome of our society. And, therefore, education in a broad sense will come to play a significant role in the reduction of violence.
  • 清永 賢二
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 43-58,en304
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this article, we attempt to analyze the relationships among delinquent development, school problems and family background under achievement society. Then, we researched into 520 delinquent boys who were born in 1960 and arrested by police at 14 years of age in Aichi prefecture in 1974.
    We adopted the number of offense known to the police from 14 years to 19 years as an index of the delinquent development and also adopted the following two factors as indices of school problems; 1) school achievement under 14 years 2) entrance to senior high school or drop out from senior high school. We adopted another two factors as indices of family backgrounds; 1) economic conditions of family 2) conditions of parent (broken or natural home) and finally adopted the number of guidance by police as an index of delinquent tendency before 13 years.
    520 juvenile delinquents were divided into two groups according to their deliquent conducts. One is property offense type delinquents and another is bodily injury type delinquents. Then, tabular analysis, correlation analysis and path analysis were made on each group.
    The main results are as follows; 1) Among 520 juvenile delinquents, 209 delinquents were arrested by the police on a charge of subsequent delinquency by 19 years. The rate of repeated delinquents is 40. 2 percent.
    2) Among the indices mentiond above of juvenile delinquents, delinquent tendency exerts most direct effects on delinquent development. Path coefficient of property offense type delinquents is. 332 that of bodily injury type delinquents is. 606 for the number of offenses repeated.
    3) Comparing indices of school problems with family backgrounds, the entrance to senior high school or drop out from senior high school exerts most direct effects on delinquent development among property offense type delinquents (path coefficient=.188).
    As a result of path analysis, we found the sequence of indices having theeffects on delinquent development for the property offense type delinquents; poor economic condition of family poor school achievement not entrance to senior high school or drop out from senior high school subsequent offenses repeated
    4) Among bodily injury type delinquents, poor school achievement exerts most direct effects on delinquent development (path coefficient=.231).
    We also found the sequence of indices among bodily injury type delinquents having the effects on delinquent development. poor economic condition of family poor school achievement subsequent offenses repeated
  • 秦 政春
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 59-76,en305
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the specific character and primary factor of delinquency and deviant behavior, and to discuss problems of educational process in school which affect the behavior, in modern society. The results of analysis on contemporary specific character and primary factor of delinquency are as follows
    (1) As the recent tendency, the delinquency ratio has increased in younger children than before (juvenilization of delinquent). Especially, the rate of increase of delinquent in primary school is remakable (see table 1).
    Moreover, a large number of delinquents in primary school tend to repeat the same deviant behavior to grade of upper secondary school (continuationalization of delinquency, see table 2).
    (2) As to students' consciousness and attitude on the delinquency and deviant behavior, it is not necessarily that all students take objection to the behavior (see table 3, 4).
    (3) As a result of path analysis, the most influential variable in the direct effect on delinquency is the record of delinquency, and then school-hierarchy, school record, and negative identity (see figure 1, 2).
    Based upon these results, several problems of educational process in school system on delinquency and deviant behavior must be discussed. That is to say, the problems are educational conditions producing the behavior as an important pathological phenomenon of education.
    In conclusion, some speculations growing out of the present research are offered. Firstly, it is pointed out that teachers' guidance for delinquent is not practically effective, and educational relationship between primary school, lower secondary school, and upper secondary school is not linked up systematically.
    Secondly, there are difficult problems concerned with structure of school system ; educational credentials, school-hierarchy, and selection examination. These problems have a considerable effect on delinquency and deviant behavior, even though the effect is not immediate.
  • 穂坂 明徳
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 77-91,en306
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Nowadays the school hierarchy structure seems to be rigidly built in social structure in Japan. The high school students are forced to be under the great influence of hierarchy, so that a lot of students tend to deviate from academic standards of senior high school education.
    In this paper I try to examine what the students' deviant behaviors derive from and how the students lead up to the deviations. In order to clarify these questions I analyze the surveyed data of senior high school students (1 st year 355 samples) at a new school and some characteristic cases of dropouts at the same school. Some of the findings are as follows:
    The students, who know their own deviation at junior high school, are more inclined to get their perspectives to the high school life through their deviation filter.
    The students, who minutely recognize the differences of achievement test hierarchy, have the conceptions of deviants from school norms.
    The students, who are unwilling to enter the high school, are apt to be isolated in the school.
    Finally the characteristics of deviation of senior high school consist of four phases; anxiety and escape, laziness and fun, poverty and segregation, solitude and rebellion.
  • 松本 良夫, 林 芳樹, 樋田 大二郎, 山田 剛
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 92-109
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 盛山 和夫, 野口 裕二
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 113-126,en307
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The extra-school education by such as juku or private instructor is an important element in contemporary Japanese educational system. Those extraschool educations (abbreviated as ESE) are considered as producing undesirable effects on the public education, but there is a popular belief that the opportunity of educational attainment is enhanced by taking advantage of the ESE.
    In this paper we attempt to evaluate the extent to which this belief can be sustained on empirical grounds, especially the effect of parental socio-economic status on the difference of opportunity in senior high school entrance through the ESE investment during junior high school age. Samples are collected from graduates in 1982 of nine junior high schools in Sapporo. Questionaires were mailed to 2588 samples and returned from 470 male and 443 female respondents.Key variables in the analysis are family background factors (socioeconomic status of parents), amount of the ESE investment on jukti and private instructor, achievement test score (in terms of standardized score) at the age of seventh grade, change in the score from that time to the age of ninth grade, and ranking of senior high schools (trade school, for some respondents) which the respondents entered after the graduation.
    The analysis shows:(1) For male students, the ESE investment is positively correlated with parental socio-economic status, but no effect of the investment is found on either the change in the standardized score or the ranking of senior high school.
    (2) For female students, though the investment increases slightly the ranking of senior high: school through the change in the standardized score, the investment itself is not affected by parental socio-economic status.
    (3) Hence, for both male and female students, there is no causal chain from parental socio-economic status to the senior high school ranking through the ESE investment.
    (4) There are, however, for both male and female students, strong effects of parental socio-economic status on the senior high school ranking, directly, and indirectly through the test score at freshman age or the change in the score.
  • 橋本 健二
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 127-139,en308
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purposes of this paper are to outline Marxist approaches in the sociological study of education taken initiative by S. Bowles in 1971, to point out problems to be solved in them, and to find direction to overcome them.
    There are three major question in the theory of Bowles and H. Gintis:(1) Instrumentalist view of public educational institutions, (2) Underestimation of economic functions of them, (3) Overestimation of reproductive functions of them. They dealt with the problems of reproduction of capitalist mode of production as far as public educational institutions took part there, and failed to locate them in the whole processes of the reproduction. Furthermore, they regarded public educational institutions as instruments of ruling classes which they could operate arbitrarily. And they concentrated on only noneconomic, political and ideological functions of them.
    There have been many critiques of their theory. And some have been proposed attempts to overcome them in two directions:(1) integration of “micro” and “macro” sociology, (2) investigation of structural mechanisms and contradictions.
    Relative to the second direction, I try to locate “Marxist sociology of education” as a branch of the theory of the capitalist state. That is, “Marxist sociology of education” must, based on more general theories of the state and social classes, (1) analyse functions of public educational institutions as a part of the state, (2) investigate factors influencing these functions, (3) locate these functions in the whole processes of reproduction of capitalist mode of production including both economic and non-economic.
  • 丸山 文裕
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 140-153,en309
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study deals with dropout in Japanese higher education. First, it reviews three basic models which have been developed in order to examine dropout in American higher education. Then, it shows various completion rates in colleges and universities which are calcurated in dividing the number of graduates by the number of freshman of four years ago. Finally, this study measures how much educational conditions and size of institution have effect on dropout.
    Major findings can be summarized as follows; 1. The completion rate is higher in two-year institutions than in four-year institutions.
    2. National universities show higher completion rate than other public universities, and private universities show the lowest rate.
    3. Female students are more likely to graduate than male students.
    4. The completion rates are higher in the study fields such as the humanities and education, and lower in the social sciences and engineering.
    5. The result of regression analysis shows that the worse the educational condition (in other words, larger student/teacher ratio; larger average class size; larger part time/full time faculty ratio), the more the number of dropout.
    6. The three variables of educational conditions being controlled, the larger the size of institution, the fewer the number of dropout.
    7. The dropout rate, defined as the number of dropout divided by the number of the enrollment, tends to be lower in the institutions with larger student/teacher ratio and in the larger institutions.
    8. The three variables of educational ocnditions being controlled, the larger the institutional size, the lower the dropout rate.
    These results confirm both the “college impact model” and “chartering model” which has been developed by sociologist John Meyer.
  • 濱名 篤
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 154-171,en310
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    There are few studies about what kinds of social classes took advantage of school education in modern Japan. In this paper, we focus on “Shizoku” stratum, and analyze their opportunities for school education and their occupational opportunities.
    At first, we criticize the viewpoint from “Senyii-ritsu”(the rate for a stratum to occupy the position) which has been used in the studies about the elite, and analyze their educational and occupational opportunities from the viewpoint of “Haishutsu-ritsu”(the rate for a stratum to reach the position).
    Secondly, we try to recognize why “Shizoku” took advantage of school education so much, using a list of graduates of one high school in the Meiji era.
    In conclusion, we can consider that “Shizoku” took advantage of school education as a step to status attainment. And “Shizoku” had increased their advantages in the educational and occupational opportunities at least until the beginning of the 20 th century.
  • 吉本 圭一
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 172-186,en310
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this paper is to find the tracking effects on career differentiation of high school graduates in Japan, which high school hierarchy has in both dimensions of individual and of system.
    I used the results of two research projects:(1) the article of the first project is ‘The Influence of Educational and Socioeconomic Conditions on the Care er Differentiation of High School Graduates’ (Amano, I. et. al.; 1984)
    (2) the report of the second project is ‘High School and Beyond in Japan-The Second Report-’(Japan Youth Research Institute; 1984).
    I reviewed the previous studies of high school hierarchy in Japan, and pointed out the problems, such as about the distinguishment between academic ability and educational aspiration.
    With the results, I found (1) high school hierarchy in Japan, and (2) its bearing upon the career differentiation of high school graduates.
    (1) 1 graphed the high school hierarchy at the national level in Japan, and made the index of hierarchy, i. e. correlation ratio (η) between high schools. High school graduates in Japan are differentiated on their career to 44% by high school hierarchy.
    (2) I proposed the hypothetical model adout the two structural (tracking) effects, and then applied it for the data both at the micro and macro (prefecture) levels. I found that the both results are coordinate with the model.
    This model is ; at the micro level, (1) probability of college attendence for all institutes is determined by individual ability and the ability context of his attending school, (2) probability of ratio of college attendence for selective institutes vs. for all institutes is determined by the ability context; and at the macro level, (1') rate of college attendence for all institutes is con-. stant, (2') rate of college attendence for selective institutes is determined by the school segregation of ability.
    Further, it is necessary to elaborate the data and analysis, and there are three coming problems. They are (1) the educational authorities and the society, which have created the high school hierarchy, (2) the anomie about education, which high school hierarchy has been accelerating and (3)‘the identity about ability’ which high school hierarchy imposes upon pupils through ‘labeling’.
  • 北村 和夫
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 187-199,en312
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Among the criticisms of the overheated competition of entrance exams, the most frequent and, perhaps, severest one is that the examinees' choice of their target is exclusively determined by “hensachi”(i.e., the deviation values of the marks of the pre-tests conducted by some preparatory schools or examination companies). Actually, however, the dependence on “hensachi” among examinees seems to have been accelerated.
    The reason for this phenomenon is that “hensachi” is, overtly or covertly, supported by the values which Japanese have shared and approved, and it is upon these values that they have modernized their country.
    In this paper, three important values are chosen for examination: competition, equalityandrationalization.
    As Hobbes elucidated, modern human relations are based on the fact that individuals gain satisfaction when they feel superior to others. This competitive relation is approved by the modern personality. For such modern human relations, “hensachi” is a suitable mediator, because, indicating only relative superiority, it is in accordance with the very principle of competition in modern society.
    The principle of equality is acknowledged in modern society. But it should be noted that there is a difference between “equality in starting point”(the equality of opportunity) and “equality in result”(substantial equality). Only the former fits in with the principle of competition.
    In Japan, the demand for equality has converged on the demand for the equality of opportunity, which justifies the inequality in result, and which, accordingly, sanctifies the severity of competition in passing the entrance exams.
    Modern capitalism promotes the formal rationality, “calculability”, to the maximum extent, as Weber explained. With its precise calculation, “hensachi” indicates to an examinee the most highly-ranked school whose entrance exam he/she can supposedly pass. In this sense, “hensachi” is a perfect tool for rationalization.
    Thus, it can be said that “hensachi” is in conformity with the modern social values appreciated by Japanese; in other words, people themselves support “hensachi” without knowing it. Therefore, in order to cease dependence on. “hensachi”, we must examine modern values and, more essentially, the quality of our modern lives.
  • 牟田 博光
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 200-215,en313
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    According to the present plan, the enrollment of the University of the Air of Japan will approximate 30, 000 students when it reaches its steady state. Its current expenditure is estimated to be ¥4.1 billion at 1979 prices; adding the annual cost of facilities and equipments and the service that the National Center for Development of Broadcast Education performs for the university, the total amounts to be ¥5.0 billion to ¥7.1 billion. Summing up this and the study expenses that students spend, ¥6.7 billion to ¥8. 7 billion would be required to operate the university. About 50% to 60% of the cost will be borne by the national treasury. The current expenditure of the university is estimated, to be ¥171 thousand to ¥237 thousand per equivalent undergraduate.
    As compared with the current expenditure in humanities and social sciences programs of a conventional university, whose academic structures aresimilar to that of the University of the Air of Japan, the current expenditure per equivalent undergraduate is estimated to be one fourth of that of national universities, one third of public universities, two thirds of day programs of private universities, and equal to that of evening programs of private universities. Taking study expenses and opportunity cost of a student into account, the University of the Air is much more efficient than conventional universities.
    From the viewpoint of cost per graduate, it is equal to that of evening pro grams of private universities, those day programs, public universities, national universities, when the graduation rate is 60%, 50%, 25%, 20% respectively.
    In general at distance education in any country fixed costs of universityoperation and the initial facility and equipment investment are high, but the marginal cost which is directly proportional to the number of students is low. Therefore, the more students a university of the air has, the more it is efficient comparative with conventional universities.
    Yet because of low graduation rate compared with that of conventional universities, the cost per graduate is higher than that of conventionuniversities except in a few countries. In Japan also raising the graduation rate will be one of the most important subjects.
  • 矢野 真和
    1984 年 39 巻 p. 216-228,en314
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2011/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article is an empirical analysis of the influence of economic factors on individual demand for higher education. Traditional economic theories were found to be adequate determinants in explaining applicants rates when two non-economic factors, the rate of successful applicants and an oil-shock dummy variable, were added to other determinant economic factors.
    Analysis indicates that income has a strong positive impact and price has a negative impact upon the applicants demand even after the oil-shock. Female applicants appear to be more income and price sensitive than male. Price, however, does not have any significant impact in the case of female junior college applicants.
    One reason for the decline in individual demand for education after 1975 is that the rate of successful applicants was affected by the control policy osupply. Second, the demand in 1975-78 was extremly high as a result of feelings of unrest under the economic recession.
    Other labor market factors affecting new graduate high school students do not have a significant effect on the applicants demand. But youth unemployment and expected return appear to have a weak but positive impact.
    One important policy implication arising from this study is that low tuition and the student aid induced enrollment response are relatively low and the cost of equalizing the enrollment difference by family income may be very high. Second, the responsiveness of enrollement demand depends upon the supply situation. The latent demand on higher education is higher than applicants.
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