Educational sociology has dealt with the latest educational problems, andhas contributed significantly to the elucidation of their actual situationsand structures. On the other hand, it has been inactive in research on theproblem of futoko (school refusal), in contrast to clinical psychology andpsychiatry, which have been rather active in the field. We may fail, however, to grasp the essence of school refusal, which has spread sincethe 1980s, if we do not recognize it as a social and cultural problem.What needs to be questioned is the current intellectual framework, whichregards reduced attendance solely as a mental problem and deals with itwithin psychology. Accordingly educational sociology could contribute tothe solution of the problem of non-attendance at school. In reviewing research on non-attendance at school made so far inthe field of educational sociology, the author has examined and considered:(1) data on non-attendance at school carried in the Report of BasicInvestigation of Schools (Ministry of Education and Science);(2) theorieson the causes of the spread of non-attendance at school;(3) studies ofremarks and comments regarding non-attendance at school and thenecessity of such studies;(4) the necessity for researches on alternativeschools (free schools, classes for adaptational guidance, mental friendsystems, etc.);(5) anticipated problems regarding the expansion ofknowledge in clinical psychology and the introduction of school counselors;and (6) the spread of non-attendance at school and changes in schools.The present paper is intended to be a general discussion preceding thefollowing papers.
In this paper, school non-attendance is studied not in order to set childrenas objects of medical treatment, nor to make them into objects of teachercounseling (student guidance). Rather, the writer has examined thecharacteristics of places where school non-attendance occurs, and themechanisms of power used to intervene in them. The author begins with a historical review of the relationship betweenschool and deviancy, as well as studies of school non-attendance in Japan. From this review, it is found that school non-attendance cannot be graspedby examining only the students' disorders, but that one must also considerthe validity and the legitimacy of the act of school attendance. Second, the characteristics of places where school non-attendanceoccurs are considered. The author clarifies the limits of the school broughtabout by the decline of its function as a socialization space, especially asa space for career formation, and also by prosperity of learningopportunities outside school and the educational thought of diversification.The author examines how these processes have contributed to the end ofseeing the act of going to school as self-evident, and of schooling nolonger being taken for granted. Also the process through which schoolnon-attendance came to appear as a category of adaptation is clarified. Finally, the author discusses how school non-attendance, which hasbecome one of the adaptation categories, is grasped by authorities, andhow the Panopticon is becoming deschooled and advancing into society ingeneral. The writer concludes the school non-attendance has become onechoice of adaptation, and it is clear that authorities are attempting tograsp rather than to eliminate it.
This paper attempts to position the futoho problem in Japan not as asubstantive problem but rather as one of narratives, and to consider thecharacteristics, wavering and potentials of this narrative. The firstcharacteristic of this inquiry is the use of the perspective of “Constructionismof Social Problems, ” as the argument begins by considering the issue ofhow the problem was created. Secondly, it adopted a “Narrative Approach” in the broad sense by focusing interest on the process of narrativeconstruction of the problem. The following findings were obtained: First, from the point of view of narratives, constructing “futoko” narratives contains the aspect of a struggle for hegemony between thedominant narrative and the counter narrative of the futoko problem. Second, the alternative perspective of “futoko” narratives results ina shaking of the dominant narrative and the production of another “reading” of these narratives. Third, the process of constructing “futoho” narratives develops astwo plots: “recovery” and “discovery.” The former is a return to thedimension of former narratives. The latter is the discovery of the dimensionof the new narratives. Fourth, the “futoko” narratives contain the motif of “transfer” : from “reflection” to “recovery” and from “reflection” to “discovery.” Finally, the motif of “transfer” builds a bridge to the new conceptof “transfer-based socialization, ” in contrast to the concept of “permanentresidence-based socialization. “This new concept presupposes the” transferability” or “fluidity” of the socialization process rather than thestability and integrity of the traditional concept of “socialization, ” itsuggests the possibility of re-positioning the problem-saturated self in thenarrative of socialization by means of a shift of the position in narrativecommunication.
One of the outstanding phenomena of Japanese education in the last fewdecades has been the increasing number of children with a psychologicalhatred toward attending school. These “school-refusers” have rapidlyincreased in number, coming to exceed 130, 000 in the 1990s. In order to resolve this newly emerging problem, the government hasimplemented a number of educational reforms at various levels. Howeverthese efforts based on “operationalism” have not brought the problemsettled. The present authors believe that it will be impossible to find asolution without regarding the phenomena not as a burden to the existingsystems of our society, but rather as a mirror image of modern society.Therefore, our attention should be directed not to discovering the causesof “school-refusing” and to shifting the responsibility onto their mentaldefects, but to creating “public spheres” in pluralistic educational systems. This paper, which focuses upon various forms of alternative learningfor “school-refusers” in Japan, endeavors to depict the whole picture ofJapanese alternative education. First, it begins by reviewing the strengthsand weaknesses of some thoughts on “publicness” by several thinkers suchas H. Arendt, J. Habermas, N. Fraser, R. Sennett. Second, the authorsattempt to give a picture of the present situation of alternative educationin Japan with quantitative and qualitative analysis from the findings ofa questionnaire survey conducted in 1999. Third, in order to take anobjective view of the existing educational system, the paper describessome trends in alternative education and supporting systems in countriesas the United States, Denmark, Republic of Korea and Thailand. It isindispensable to examine these actual movements in and outside thecountry and search for possibilities for creating our own “public spheres.” In conclusion, the paper attempts to discuss some portions of the “message” we receive from these alternative practices, and finally the authors stressthe importance of taking a self-reflective attitude towards the creation of “public spheres.”
Today, the principal paradigm used in the issue of school non-attendanceis that of clinical psychology. It takes the issue as a “problem of the heart.” However, if too much emphasis is placed on this paradigm, one importantfact will be missed, i.e. the conditions under which the phenomenon of “nurse -room attendance” becomes possible. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method for relativizingthis paradigm from the perspective of the sociology of education. First, themethodology and perspectives which are mainly used today ofcase studies (the term “casism” is used in this paper) are mentioned. There aremethods based on the paradigm of clinical psychology. The maincharacteristic is that a case is constituted by the unit ofan individual'slife history. Next, an alternative perspective, of “research in clinical ethnomethodology in education” is proposed. This is a fundamental perspectivefor using “cases as methodography.” “Cases as methodography” areconstituted using the fragment of important interaction as a unit. Byanalyzing the structure of the fragment of important interaction, theconditions which make nurse-room attendance possible can bequalitativelyclarified, and can produce a new viewpoint for looking at school nonattendancebased on its feature. Furthermore, the following benefits can be gained if schoolnursescome to share “cases as methodography” at case study meetings. Namely, the case and the “school nurse as a person of deeds” can beseparated, and the authoritarian nature or the soul of self-sacrifice involved in the workof writing the case can be removed. For example, it can become easy fora new school nurse to submit a case. Moreover, the sharing ofmethodography can promote new research exchanges between researchersand persons of deeds. Therefore, “research in clinical ethnomet hodologyin education” is an experiment which can build a new direction in clinicalresearch.
An increasing number of people have come to believe that the currentschool system has failed to adapt to the rapid social changes taking placetoday, and has somehow become fundamentally dysfunctional. Educational reformers for the most part assert the necessity oftransforming the system from a discipline-oriented to a self-actualizationoriented one, namely substituting the school as a producer of useful andsubmissive workers by the school as a supporter of self-actualization. Historically, the modern education system was designed to instillbasic habits and ways of thinking which could last consistently throughoutan individual's life. The concealed but clear function of education inmodern industrial society was to cast children into a mold of industrialworkers. However, the contemporary social system demands workers who havethe strong ambition to develop their ability as workers and have strongwork motivation and the desire to continuously educate themselves to learnnew technology and knowledge. Therefore, educational reformers seek useful management technologyin order to motivate people toward self-actualization. Professional interestgroups of counselors have responded to this demand for new customersby gradually ridding themselves of the medical paradigm an adopting aneducational one. Critics who see devices for modern discipline and training to beunnecessary or even harmful, and who view counseling as a useful toolfor such devices, are against school counseling. On the other hand, there are people who believe schools shouldcontinue to play an important role for discipline and training, but whoconsider that traditional methods are no longer effective. Those who seethings in this way and consider counseling as a useful new tool fordiscipline and training obviously welcome school counseling. This author is personally in favor of a school system which promotesself-actualization, but is critical of traditional counseling with its inclinationto eliminate problems without solving by emotion management. The authoris also opposed to the social construction of counseling as an authentichuman relation. Many problems involving schools arise from their excessive roles andfunctions. Nobody can exit from the school as a total institution, becauseeverything resides inside them. This author's belief is that shelters and otheroptions should be provided outside.
This paper examines how the image of Japanese Americans has changedin U. S. history textbooks published in the second half of the 20th century.The main contribution of this study is to clarify when and why informationon Japanese Americans as a minority group became included in thedefinition of the “American nation” that had been taught as the basis ofnational integration. Through this examination, this study argues thatthe multiculturalization of education transforms the logic for socialintegration in the host society. The method of this study is the “storyline analysis, ” and the objectsof analyses are eighty history textbooks, study aids, and workbookspublished in the United States from 1952 to 1999. The findings can besummarized into the following three points:(1) Japanese American Studieswere already in full stride before 1988, when U.S. Congress gave a formalapology for the compulsory internment and enacted the Civil LibertiesAct;(2) depictions of people of Japanese descent found their place inAmerican historiography by being included into nationalistic educationalcontents in the 1980s; however, (3) in the 1990s, depictions of Japanese Americans came to reflect the change in U.S. national education, whichstarted attaching more importance to the universally acknowledged rightsof human beings. This study concludes that the change in the images of Japanese Americans between the 1980s and 1990s demonstrates the straying of U.S. history education from old-fashioned nationalism. Although U. S. historyeducation still adopts the form of “national” education, it gives pictures of “ethnic” minorities from the viewpoint of “universal” human dignity.This historiography can be formed within a mixture of ethnic contexts, national contexts, and universal contexts. In this sense, it can be saidthat in the 1990s, the importance of the framework of “national” historywas relativized into the importance of other frames of historiography.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the factors that influence the “willingness to perform more difficult jobs” among young females whoremain in the marginal labor market. While an increasing number ofyoung people have taken marginal jobs, Japan is becoming a society inwhich more females are being required to be economically independent bycontinuing to work. Consequently, a contradiction is growing. Establishinga training system for occupational capacities will not resolve thecontradiction because of the very logic behind training systems, namelythat the lack of “willingness to perform more difficult jobs” should beattributed to individual responsibility. This logic will lead to income gapsbetween those who have willingness and those who do not. “Youngfemales who stay in the marginal labor market” must be analyzed, asthis contradiction can be seen most clearly among them. Since previous researches have focused on the fact that young femaleworkers' “willingness to perform their full occupational capacities” is beingweakened because of their limited job experience, the question of whethertheir “willingness to perform more difficult jobs” will increase or not iftheir job experience is broadened has remained unanswered. This paperproposes and tests this hypothesis, and obtains the following two findings:(1) broadened job experience alone does not increase young females' “willingness to perform more difficult jobs, ” but their self-confidence does.(2) Broadened job experience is the most effective way of developing theirself-confidence. These findings imply and suggest the following:(a) Social policiesshould switch their priority from the reform of the life and educationdomain to the labor domain. This is particularly important for themarginal labor market. Social policies must ensure that workers in themarginal market will attain a future-oriented ethos, including selfconfidenceand the willingness to perform more difficult jobs, becausethose workers are the most likely to face the obsolescence of their skills.(b) Equality in the workplace has been emphasized mainly from the viewpointof ensuring equal opportunity for the formation of capabilities and the fairselection of competent and willing workers. This paper adds a new reasonfor placing importance of equality in the workplace: it socializes workersto attain self-confidence and the willingness to perform more difficult jobs.(c) Further research is necessary to illuminate how individual occupationalempowerment is possible, especially for the socially disadvantaged.
The objective of this paper is to explore changes in selection anddistribution mechanisms, using data collected through questionnaire surveysconducted in two prefectures in 1997 and 1999. Many studies have pointed out that Japanese senior high schools havefunctioned as mechanisms for selecting and distributing students accordingto their academic achievements, measured by single criterion. Under these circumstances, the current educational reform movement, which emphasizes diversification and individualization in upper secondaryeducation, aims at the following four objectives:(1) to provide students witha wide range of options, enabling them to study in accordance with theirinterests, concerns and career paths, in order to diversify the criterionson which their judgements of school quality are based;(2) to diversify thecontent of education in accordance with students' interests, concerns andcareer paths in order to enhance their incentives to study;(3) to recommendthat student determine their career paths in accordance with their owninterests and concerns, lest their post-school plans should be determinedby “school rankings”; and (4) to eliminate evaluations that vertically rankpost-school plans or occupational careers. While this educational reform movement raises many questionswhich must be scrutinized, among them, great importance must be placedon evaluating its influence upon the selection and distribution functions ofsenior high school education. Therefore, this paper attempts to explorewhether senior high school students experience the reorganized schoolingirrespective of their school rankings and how the reorganization affectstheir attitudes toward studying and their post-school plans. The major findings are as follows:(1) it is the students attendinglower-middle-ranking and low-ranking schools who are most influencedby the recent reorganization and reform of secondary schooling;(2) thereorganized schooling at the lower-middle-ranking and lower-rankingschools or courses provides students with satisfying learning experiences;and (3) while recent curricular changes at upper-ranking and upper-middlerankingschools or courses seem to enhance the aspirations of theirstudents, those at lower-middle-ranking and lower-ranking schools lowerthem. This paper hypothesizes that these changes imply the emergence ofsegregated selection and distribution mechanisms which are characterizedby the institutionalization of a “Cooling-Out” mechanism in the publiceducational system.
Much of the discussion on child abuse is influenced by the medical andpsychological perspectives. Child abuse, however, is also a sociologicalissue. The purpose of this study is, by approaching the life-world of abusedchildren, to consider the stigmatization and psychological damage that isbrought on by the stigmatization. For children, and especially for abusedchildren, experiences in the family of orientation have very significantmeanings. When we think of the experience of abuse through a sociologicalperspective, we find there are important points in how the abused interpretshis/her experiences in the family, from which we can discover thepossibility of the stigmatization. The first section is an introduction, from a sociological perspective, to the problem of child abuse. The second, which is a review of earlierliterature discussing the relationship between child abuse and stigma, formsthe overall perspective for this study. The concept of stigma is also reviewed.In the third, three cases of abuse are analyzed from the viewpoint of socialinteractionism. The data obtained from the cases is summarized in thefourth section, and the implications of this study are discussed in the last. Oral life histories of abused children explain how stigmatizationoccurs and how the psychological damage is created (and occasionallyreduced) through interactions with others under the norm of familyaffection. This research may be quite significant as psychological damageis usually discussed within the medical and psychological perspectives, but not dealt with from the basis of social stigmatization.
With the recent economic development, upper secondary education in China has undergone substantial expansion. This paper aims to analyzethe underlying economic factors behind it. Based on cross-sectional databy province, the analysis is done from three aspects: the correlationbetween enrollment rates and the level of the economic development, thecorrelation between changes in enrollment rates and GDP, and thecorrelation between enrollment rates and the patterns of economicdevelopment. The analyses demonstrate two facts. First, the enrollment rate isnot significantly correlated with the level of per capita GDP, showingthat there are significant variations in the relationship between economicgrowth and the expansion of enrollment. Second, patterns of economic development are closely related toenrollment growth. The share of small-scale rural industries has asignificant positive effect on enrollment in vocational schools, while stateownedindustries tend to be associated with enrollment in academic schools.
This paper attempts to clarify how the “modern girl” became an ideology, to explain the actual conditions under which it became an ideology andto investigate what kind of changes followed. The popular magazineShojo-no-Tomo is analyzed from two different points of view. The firstconcerns how the family is emotionally interrelated. The second concernsthe “girl's” position in such a family. The results of the analysis are as follows. From the end of theMeiji Era through the end of the Taisho Era, the relationship between thegirl and her family was one in which there was a unidirectional, absolutedevotion from the girl to her parents, which became the basis for theparents affection. This is traditionally known as “ko”. However, startingat the beginning of the Showa Era, the relationship changed from “ho” toa relationship of modern affection and devotion, where the parents didnot expect girls to reciprocate their affection with absolute devotion. Astime passed, this bond of affection was expanded and strengthened. Thus, with the encouragement of family members, girls learned to pursuefreedom and self-realization, by being set free from the restraints of “ko”, and were able to give priority to considerations of themselves. That girl'simage was different from the image of ryosaihenbo (“good wife, wisemother”) that was taught in schools. During the War, this new identityserved the girls well, as they were able to make contributions to the stateas independent individuals with emotionally support from their families.The conclusions of this paper show the process by which the “girl” withinthe family has become an independent and personally involved “national.” Therefore, within the family, the change of emotional relations hasbrought forth a new independence, which in turn expresses a change inthe way that the “state” and the “individual” relate to one another.