This paper carefully examines the effects of family background and two value orientations on the process of formation of learning attitudes and educational expectations among current high school students. One crucial point of this paper is that we clearly differentiate the direct and indirect effects of family background on learning attitudes and educational expectations. The second point is that we consider the functions of two important value orientations, toward status attainment and self-fulfillment, both of which are important for parents and schools in determining their own educational policies. Using data collected from 2, 220 high school seniors, we performed an OLS regression analysis on learning attitudes and a logistic regression analysis on educational expectations, and examined the following hypotheses.(1) Parents' educations and the hierarchical status of schools are positively associated; at the same time, the hierarchical status of schools and educational expectations are positively associated.(2) Parents' educations are positively associated with learning attitudes and educational expectations, independent of the hierarchical status of a school.(3) Value orientations are positively associated with parents' educations.(4) Value orientations are positively associated with learning attitudes and educational expectations, independent of other important factors. The main results are as follows.(1) Although the effects of the educational attainment of parents on learning attitudes have disappeared or weakened, their effects on educational expectations remain strong, independent of the hierarchical status of a school.(2) The two value orientations have no association with family background, independent of the hierarchical status of the school, sex, and academic performance. Therefore, our society does not carry out a social reproduction process via the internalization of these value orientations.(3) The orientation toward status attainment has a statistically significant effect on both learning attitudes and educational expectations, and the orientation toward self-fulfillment has a statistically significant effect on learning attitudes but not on educational expectations, independent of other important factors.
This study analyzes the activities of associations of parents who have futokoji, or school absentees (I will use the acronym AFPs for these associations). The purpose is to explore the role of the narrative community in constructing the futoko problem. The approach to the analysis is drawn from Bernstein's theoretical frameworks, “pedagogic codes” and “pedagogic device” The data used in this study was collected by participant observation of the three APFs in Tokyo and from interviews with their members. I begin by focusing on the pedagogic code of the APFs. Pedagogic codes consist of classification and framing. Classification refers to “what, ” and framing to “how” meanings are put together. Communication in APFs is regulated by these dual values of the pedagogic code. While strong classification and framing regulate communications between the APFs and the outside, weak classification and framing within the APFs themselves regulate communications among the members. This characteristic of the APFs protects the families of futoko ji from being stigmatized, and encourages them to narrate their experiences with their children. In effect, the activities of the APFs bring about a process of restorytelling, which is the focus of narrative therapy. Secondly, I examine how the pedagogic device regulates the practice and discourse of the APFs. By recontextualizing local knowledge among the members and using expertise mainly derived from clinical psychology and psychiatry, the APF's pedagogic device constructs a specific image of futoko as a “journey, ” and two types of identity, which Bernstein terms therapeutic identity and prospective identity. These instructional discourses are embedded in the regulative discourse which creates order and relationship between the family and the experts on psychology, psychiatry and education. Members of the APFs carry out re-storytelling in opposition to the expertise which stigmatizes their families and children as deviant. However, it is the expertise that helps the APFs create their own narration and their particular image of futoko. Based on these results, this study concludes that APF's activities reflect an ambivalent relationship with expertise and an oscillation between medicalization and demedicalization, the control of “deviancy” and the creation of an alternative society.
The expansion of graduate education has been one of the major policy priorities in the area of higher education in recent years. Meanwhile, enrollments in graduate courses, especially in MSS (master programs in social sciences) have been rising rapidly. This paper attempts to analyze the mechanism of the expansion of MSS programs. For this purpose, the following two questions are posed.(1) Has the actual expansion conformed to the governmental framework?(2) If not, how can the mechanism behind the expansion of MSS enrollments be explained? On the first question, the following findings are made. At the end of the 1980s, there was a significant shift in government policy, encouraging the expansion of MSS programs. At the time, the government had two preconceptions about MSS. One was that students with a high motivation for study wouldapply for admission, and another that the social demand for students who had completed MSS programs was increasing. The government assumed that a significant amount of talent would be developed through MSS courses if the enrolment capacity expanded. However, the actual expansion fell below these expectations. On the second question, a methodological strategy was used of analyzing the interaction between students (demand side) and each individual university (supply side) as suggested by Craig and Archer. From this analysis, coupled with the findings for the first question, the following expansion mechanism was obtained: Following the shift in government policy at the end of the 1980s, national and private universities that already had MSS courses began to expand their admission capacities around 1990. This brought an expansion in demand among students for admission to MSS courses. However, in contrast to the expectation of the government, the social demand for students who had completed MSS programs did not increase much, and many of the students who entered MSS courses actually did not have a high motivation to study. There was also an expansion in the latter part of 1990s, because many private universities that had not focused much on MSS courses until the middle of the 1980s built up admission capacity based on the expected demand among students. Thus, an autonomous expansion among private universities occurred. These findings imply and suggest the following:(1) The actual expansion in MSS enrolments did not conform to the policy aim because the government did not judge student motivations correctly and did not take into consideration what private universities might do. In order to ensure the policy aims of such an expansion, some devices would be required to restrict the type of new students.(2) It was found that it was the steps taken by individual universities that had the greatest effect on how actual expansions occurred. The conclusion is that when analyzing expansions of enrolment, it is imperative to include measures that take into account actions by individual universities that increase supply.
The marketization of higher education has brought about two major changes in China. One has been the implementation of various reform programs in the public sector of higher education, in aspects such as governance and finance. The other concerns the expansion of the private sector, as witnessed by a dramatic increase in the number of privately-run institutions in post-secondary education. This paper aims to explore the structure and functions of the private sector in China. The topic can therefore be broken down into three research questions. First, what kinds of individuals go to these privately-run institutions? Second, what are their motivations for going to these institutions? Third, what are the corresponding relationships between the categorization of students and the institutions? The data presented in this paper were collected from a questionnaire survey entitled “Attitude Survey of Students in Privately-run Institutions in Post-secondary Education, ” which was conducted in June 2001, with a sampling size of 430 students, in Zhejiang, China. The major findings can be summarized as follows. Although the data showed that the private sector provided students who could not enter public sector institutions with chances for advancement to higher education, the aspiration and motivations of the students were extremely varied. Furthermore, I examined the relationship between the categorization of students and institutions. Compared to the higher-ranked institutions, lower-ranked institutions tended to take in students who showed stronger aspiration toward higher education. In other words, privately-run institutions play not only a supplementary role to the public sector, as stated above, but also contribute toward providing more diversity in educational opportunity.
The purpose of this study is to consider the definitions of child abuse by professionals, and the aims behind these definitions, and to clarify, with reference to the opinions of abusers, the issue of definitions in the course of support. The nuance of cruelty of the word “abuse”(in Japanese, gyakutai), is a key to this discussion. In recent decades, broad definition based on the welfare of children has become popular, but we have not paid great attention to the way the word gyakutai is used. Some earlier literature have suggested, in a summary way, the problems of definition, while others have researched and illustrated differences and consensus among professionals or lay people, leading to quantitative analysis. This literature is lacking in examinations of the relation between the professional and the abuser. In this study, with the aim of achieving the purpose suggested before, I conducted interviews with eleven helpers engaged in different jobs, and also interviewed a mother who had abused her child and referred to autobiographies and articles written by abusers. In analyzing the data, I took the stance of presuming that what a person perceives to be problems is precisely what should be looked at by the researcher. The results of the research are as follows. The definitions formulated by helpers were not necessarily based on social roles. Although many mothers felt that their treatment of their children was inappropriate, they did not define their actions as gyakutai. The definition by a helper depends more on whether he/she is mainly concerned with the welfare of children, leading to a broad definition, or the emotion of mothers, leading to narrow one, rather than on his/her social role. It is interesting to note that in the course of providing support, helpers who agree on the broad definition avoid using gyakutai, just like those who prefer the narrow sense, because of concern over the nuance of cruelty that gyakutai can have. It should be concluded, as stated above, that when we support or intervene in a case, or enlighten people, it is necessary to propose that gyakutai be the term not for condemning the abusers but for promoting the welfare of children and supporting the parents.
English language is widely used in various international situations, and is recognized as a de facto world standard. It is regarded as the most beneficial foreign language for Japanese to learn, since Japan's economy depends on close business interactions with other countries. It seems that recently, English has become so important that without it, people may be effectively barred from positions of high status and social influence. This study examines the English proficiency of social science department graduates from one of Japan's national universities, and also explores its effects on their earnings and promotions, using a set of questionnaire data. By applying factor analysis to several items, a representative variable of practical English ability is created. Other new variables, such as examination scores in liberal arts and majors, and the average rate of the class attendance, are used as indicators of students' academic achievements. Extra-curricular activities are also referred to as social aptitude. The ordinary least squares, instrumental variables and ordered-probit methods are used to estimate the importance of English in determining earnings and promotions. It is statistically confirmed that English proficiency has a great positive impact on job promotions and earnings. This indicates that differences in English ability may result in inequality in terms of earnings and economic status in Japan. In addition, it is estimated that academic achievement in university has a positive correlation with future posting. This is contrary to what people commonly believe in Japan. On the other hand, extra-curricular activities do not seem to have any significant impacts on career.
This paper examines empirically the hypotheses derived from the differential reinforcement and social control theories of delinquency, and provides new understanding for understanding issues of delinquency in contemporary Japan. Over the last three decades, relatively few empirical studies have been conducted on the relationship between juveniles' association with delinquent peers and various types of deviant behavior in Japanese society. In particular, there have been very few case-controlled studies testing the analytic validity of differential reinforcement and social control theories for official delinquency. The author hypothesizes that official delinquency, which tends to be chronic and only occurs in the presence of strong motives and impulses, is mainly caused by the mechanism of positive reinforcement (seeking rewards) and negative reinforcement (escaping punishment) through association with delinquent peers. In addition, the author hypothesizes that school-related stress is negatively related to both self-reported and official delinquency. The following conclusions are reached.(1) The findings are very consistent with the author's hypothesis that delinquency is learned or reinforced through association with delinquent peers. Moreover, the effect of delinquent peer association holds significance, independent of other factors.(2) As was found in previous studies, attachment to teachers is in general negatively related to self-reported delinquency scales. None of the attachment scales are significantly related to official measures of delinquency.(3) Commitment has a significant negative effect only on official traffic offenses.(4) School-related stress has a negative effect on certain forms of official delinquency, which clearly weakens the argument that school-related stress promotes delinquency. It seems very important to understand the mechanism of differential reinforcement to know why some children have positive motives and impulses toward delinquent behavior. Finally, the implications for future research are discussed.
The increasing number of mugyosha or freeter has frequently been pointed out in Japan. These terms refer to people who, after graduation from junior or senior high school, don't go on to either college or to full-time jobs. Educational sociology researches have made clear the correlation between career perspectives and academic achievement, social stratification, and youth subculture through questionnaires and interviews. Some authors have suggested offering scholarships or opportunities for career development. However, are such suggestions effective? Past researches have failed to answer this question, either because they did not make clear the process of choosing future courses or see the influences of subculture upon such choices. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of making future choices, and to make clear the relationship between subculture and future courses. The method adopted is participant observation and interviews of a youth group, specifically a group of street dancers. The members did not aim to be professional dancers, and became freeter. The following findings were made. A lack of confidence in academic abilities and strong resistance to becoming constricted kept them away from college and full-time jobs. The amount of wealth and the occupation of their parents had an influence on the transition from freeter to college student or full-time worker. But it was more important that youth who remained in a local area formed a subculture, or “local relationship culture, ” in which place, time and money were jointly owned. The status of freeter was appropriate for this subculture. If the function of culture is taken into consideration, the effectiveness of suggestions that presuppose social mobility and movement between regions, such as scholarships or career development programs, becomes uncertain. It is necessary to make clear the real state of subculture and to work out programs appropriate to it.