Objective: Various factors influence the manifestation of premenstrual symptoms (PMS). It has been associated with sleeping time, nutrition intake, absence of meal, exercise habits, leanness, and obesity. It is necessary to analyze their associations with PMS from a continuous and multifaceted perspective. We examined the relationship between premenstrual syndrome and dietary habits in women.
Methods: Fifty-two college women completed questionnaires on menstrual syndrome, lifestyle, and food intakes. Menstrual symptoms were assessed using MDQ (Menstrual Distress Questionnaire). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to examine the correlation between MDQ score and food intakes.
Results: MDQ score correlated with intake of animal protein, animal fat, saturated fatty acid, saturated fatty acid energy ratio, cholesterol and carbohydrate. In term of food, MDQ score correlated with intake of meat, eggs, dairy products, cereal, and sugar. MDQ score was higher in people who did not intake certain combinations of food or did not use certain cooking methods.
Conclusions: We found that intake of certain nutrients and foods were associated with premenstrual symptoms. Improvement of eating habits may be one way to relieve premenstrual symptoms.
Objectives: To implement outcome evaluation, process evaluation, and structure evaluation of a nutrition care program for community-dwelling older adults. Prior to conducting this study, we developed process and structure evaluation sheets on the program.
Methods: The nutrition care program was conducted three times in a series for the prevention of malnutrition in which 29 older adults (7 men and 22 women, mean age 71.8 ± 4.9 years) participated. For nutrition assessment, data from blood tests, physical measurements, and nutritional intake were collected before and after the program. From the data, the stages of dietary behavior change and energy/protein intake were set as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. The process and structure of the program implementation were evaluated by two registered dietitians using the evaluation sheets consisting of 14 process items and 9 structure items on a four point scale.
Results: Dietary behavior improved in 31.0% of the participants after the program. Energy intake increased significantly from 2,124 ± 746 kcal to 2,398 ± 808 kcal (p = 0.005) along with protein intake from 95.7 ± 41.4 to 111.7 ± 41.1 g/d (p = 0.005). The process and structure evaluation revealed that appropriate program planning and implementation, and multidisciplinary collaboration contributed to the outcome obtained, and that insufficient "Check" and "Action" in the PDCA cycle was the issue.
Conclusion: An improvement in both dietary behavior and nutrient intake were observed through the nutrition care program. In addition, the process and structure evaluations were conducive to managing the quality of the program.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of food and nutritional intake grouped according to carbohydrate energy ratio in community-dwelling people in Japan.
Methods: The study participants were community-dwelling adults, aged ≥ 20 years who lived in Ebetsu city, Hokkaido, Japan. Of the 3,000 male and female adults selected by stratified random sampling, 1,431 were included in the analyses. Data on dietary habits, history of disease, and lifestyle factors were obtained between July and August 2018 using a self-administered standardized questionnaire (a validated, brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire). Dietary habits during the past month were assessed using the questionnaire. An analysis of covariance was used to examine the associations between the quartiles of carbohydrate energy ratio and consumption of food and nutrients.
Results: Participants with a higher carbohydrate energy ratio had a significantly higher intake of grains and a significantly lower intake of foods from other food groups other than grains. Participants with a lower carbohydrate energy ratio had a significantly higher intake of nutrients compared with those with a higher carbohydrate energy ratio.
Conclusions: Participants with a lower carbohydrate energy ratio tended to have a favorable intake of nutrients. In addition, male participants with a lower carbohydrate energy ratio had a lower prevalence of hypertension compared with those with a higher carbohydrate energy ratio, possibly affected by the sodium-potassium ratio and alcohol intake. A prospective study is needed to further investigate these effects.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate portion sizes of rice at restaurants.
Methods: We targeted 22 local restaurants in the Tokyo, Japan, metropolitan area (Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Saitama) and 22 chain restaurants. We measured the amount of rice and every dish in set meals and diameters of dishes of rice and calculated the nutritional value of meals at the local restaurants. For the chain restaurants, we collected data on the amount, energy, and dishes of rice using their homepages.
Results: The minimum, maximum, and median (25th and 75th percentiles) amounts of rice were 142 g, 341 g, and 188 g (163 g, 222 g) at the local restaurants. The minimum, maximum, and median amounts of rice were 180 g, 250 g, and 199 g (181 g, 228 g) at the chain restaurants. More rice bowls than rice plates were used at the restaurants. The diameter of rice bowls positively correlated with the amount of rice served at the local restaurants (ρ = 0.625, p = 0.006).
Conclusions: The amount of rice at most local restaurants was over 160 g and under 200 g. The amount of rice at most chain restaurants was over 180 g and under 200 g. The median amount of rice at local restaurants was smaller than that of the chain restaurants. The amount of rice at local restaurants varied widely and was sometimes outside of proper range. Most restaurants used rice bowls, and the bigger the rice bowls, the more amount of rice served.