eizogaku
Online ISSN : 2189-6542
Print ISSN : 0286-0279
ISSN-L : 0286-0279
Current issue
Displaying 1-22 of 22 articles from this issue
ESSAYS
ARTICLES
  • Kentaro Ogura
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 34-56
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The animation pan was invented by animator Bill Nolan (William C. Nolan) in the 1910s. This technique creates movement by pulling backgrounds on an animation stand and is similar to the Moving Panorama that emerged in the early 19th century. In the 1910s, when the animation pan was born, the Moving Panorama was used as a backdrop for theater and film shoots. At the time, Nolan was working in New York City, and Moving Panorama was close to where he worked. Besides, his animation pan was also referred to as “panorama,” a term commonly used in the U.S. at the time to refer to the Moving Panorama. Given these circumstances, there is a strong possibility that the Moving Panorama was one of the sources of inspiration for the animation pan.

    In cel animation using the animation pan, there is a tendency for the layers to eventually become multi-layered, which is also common to the Moving Panoramas used in stage sets and Expo exhibits. Therefore, the trigger for multi-layering is thought to be contained within the structure of the Moving Panorama.

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  • Masakazu Natori
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 57-77
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The Sun (2005), directed by Aleksandr Sokurov, has been praised for being the first film to portray Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) as a protagonist and a human being. On the other hand, his humanity and humanness are multi-layered and not limited to the obvious forms of joking with his attendants, worrying about his bad breath, writing a letter to his wife (the empress), and ultimately making a “human declaration”. This paper will first analyze the text in terms of “looking at/being looked at”, movement, and acting, in order to show that the humanity and the humanness of the emperor in this film are closely connected to a variety of cinematic techniques. Importantly, such techniques contribute to representing the complexity of the fact that a human being is the emperor and the emperor is a human being, and allow this man to appear as a being who goes back and forth between the two. Through these analyses and discussions, I will conclude that the significance of the film lies in its (unconscious) efforts to convey the difficulties involved in considering the humanity and the humanness of the emperor to the audience by representing his “humanization” as entirely a realistic process of negotiation.

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  • Norio Togiya
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 78-100
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Hakubundou which was managed by Harada Shouzaemon in the Meiji Era was known for the printing of the “Kajinno-kiguu”. However, in the late 19th century the company was facing a downturn in their business and temporarily submitted a notice of closure in 1901. Seven years later, Aburaya Tatsu, the second son of Shouzaemon, revived the company as “Aburaya Hakubundou” in Osaka. This company specialized in high quality printing of old paintings and antiques using the collotype. The company also took part in the reproduction of classic Chinese cultural properties and once again flourished across the country. However, it is only partially known that the company was involved in the printing of photographs and postcards from 1901 to 1908. Meanwhile, manuscripts and photographs printed by the company found in the home of descendants of the Harada family in recent years have been revealed details of the activities of Hakubundou during the period. This article will look into the activities of Hakubundou during the period, clarify the involvement of the photographer OGAWA Kazumasa in the photography publishing business of Hakubundou, and provide an insight into the business in the late Meiji Era.

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  • Kosuke Fujiki
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 101-121
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The influence of Japanese cinema on Murakami Haruki’s literary work is not a topic that has been widely explored. Indeed, the relationship between the two is far from manifest: References to Japanese cinema in Murakami’s novels are almost non-existent, with a mention of Kurosawa Akira’s Throne of Blood (1957) and Hidden Fortress (1958) in 1Q84 (2009-10) being a rare exception. Although Murakami occasionally refers to Japanese films in his essays, his only book of film reviews, The Adventure of Cinema [Eiga wo meguru bōken] (1985, co-authored with Kawamoto Saburō), has no entry of Japanese cinema.

    This article considers intertextuality between Murakami’s Killing Commendatore (2017) and Suzuki Seijun’s post-Nikkatsu films, using Murakami’s 1980 review of Suzuki’s work as a key text. As will be demonstrated, Murakami’s adaptation of “The Bond of Two Lifetimes” [Nise no enishi] (1808) in Killing Commendatore shows a considerable influence from Suzuki’s television work, A Mummy’s Love [Miira no koi] (1973). Through comparison of Murakami’s novel with A Mummy’s Love and Suzuki’s Taisho trilogy (particularly the 1991 film Yumeji), I will identify a creative trajectory from Murakami’s critical engagement with Suzuki’s oeuvre early in his career to Suzuki’s unexpected re-emergence in Murakami’s later text.

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  • Kasumi Kugo
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 122-143
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This article explores an emergence of a new concept of photography, “anonymous document” in the late 1960s and early ‘70s Japan. In this period, a group of young postwar photographers, namely Tomatsu Shomei, Naito Masatoshi, Nakahira Takuma, and Taki Koji proposed to regard photography only as “anonymous documents” instead of “individual expressions.” Through tracing the formation of this new concept of photography, this article asks about the historicity of this term instead of treating it as a technologically guaranteed nature of photography. For this purpose, the study analyzes the pivotal exhibition “Hundred Years of [Japanese] Photography” (1968), through which the concept of “anonymous document” was constructed, along with other related publications. firstly, I highlight the sworn opposition between the postwar young photographers and wartime photographers, such as Kimura Ihei, Watanabe Yoshio, and Domon Ken. Secondly, I also investigate a shared discourse between the two groups. I particularly focus on the premise of the subjectivity of photographers as observers to which the postwar photographers presumably hold on. Through this process, this article first questions the conventional understanding of the epistemological shift between prewar and postwar photographers. Secondly, it challenges the understanding of the concept of “documentality” as a nature of the medium, alternatively illustrates it as a historically constructed discourse.

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  • Yuki Irikura
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 144-163
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Matsui Chieko, a star actress in Shôchiku during the late 1920’s, had a career both as an actress and a screenwriter. After she joined Shôchiku in 1925, she soon became one of the stars in the company and she also wrote two screenplays for her own films. This paper focusses on three aspects of her career: how her unique career was possible in Shôchiku Kamata, how she developed her own star persona there, and how she created her career as a screenwriter by using her own star image.

    In the first part, I focus on the Shôchiku Kamata studio. Kido Shirô became Head of the studio in 1924 and developed a scenario department, which encouraged young generations to discuss films freely. While he also aimed to produce new types of modern drama, shinpa films also kept being produced. This is where Matsui found her stage as an actress and a screenwriter. In the second part, I discuss Matsui’s star persona as a tragic actress who always still displayed an air of educational sophistication. In the third part, I focus on two films written by Matsui, analyzing her scripts to illustrate her characteristics as a screenwriter.

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  • Mai Harada
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 164-182
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    François Truffaut’s career began with a reflection on an intersection of cinema and literature. As a critic, he published an essay, “A Certain Tendency in French Cinema,” in which he criticized the adaptations of the time, and three years later, for his first film, Les Mistons, he attempted an adaptation of Maurice Pons’s novel. A year later, in his essay “Literary Adaptation for Cinema,” he took up Claude Autant-Lara’s Le Diable au Corps, based on the novel by Raymond Radiguet, and once again approached the issue of adaptation. These two essays and the film tells us that Truffaut’s interest was in adapting a first-person memory.

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal the cinematic transformation of literary work in Les Mistons by focusing on its “invisible, unidentifiable first-person-plural narrator.” The first section clarifies that Truffaut's claim of “adaptation of value” by referring to the two essays. The second section discusses the first-person narrator who recollects in the novel and film, and confirms the position of the narrator in Les Mistons. Finally, I will argue that the film enables the “we” narration of the novel by placing an unidentifiable narrator.

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  • Ikuko Takasaki
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 183-205
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This paper examines a British film, The Small Back Room (1949), by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger (a partnership together often known as “The Archers”). The film is a study on damaged masculinity, which it depicts with a vividness far greater than other British works of the same era.

    Viewing the film through the broad lens of postwar cinema, I analyze the depiction of masculinity in The Small Back Room using Kaja Silverman’s theoretical model of “historical trauma,” devised in her analysis of postwar damaged masculinity in The Best Years of Our Lives (1946). In particular, I examine in detail notable sequences involving a whiskey bottle and an unexploded shell, showing how both function as phallic symbols, before identifying the hallmarks of damaged masculinity within the film. Furthermore, via a close textual analysis of the protagonist’s male-female relationships in which I draw on Eve K. Sedgwick’s concept of “homosocial desire,” I demonstrate how, though the film appears at first glance to function as a standard heterosexual narrative, its gender structure is in fact distinct in its foregrounding of strong male bonds and its thorough exclusion of the female.

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  • Toshie Mori
    2022 Volume 108 Pages 206-225
    Published: August 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This essay examines Kenji Mizoguchi’s The Woman of the Rumor (1954, Daiei) that has yet to be fully examined, as a remake of Jenny (Marcel Carné, 1936). The film moves a nightclub in Paris to a brothel house, Izutsuya in Shimabara, Kyoto, and inherits the basic plot, including a love triangle over a mother, a daughter, and a man. In Jenny, the couple leaves the mother unaware that they are in a love triangle. In contrast, Mizoguchi’s film provokes harsh conflicts among the three and concludes with solidarity between the mother and daughter as victims of the exploitation by men. A detailed examination of the remake process reveals that Kawaguchi Matsutaro’s adaptation novel as a naive “maternal drama” brings difficulty into the production process. Although the completed film brings in Mizoguchi’s eternal theme of female exploitation, reviews criticized that the reconciliation between the mother as the owner of the brothel house and her daughter undermined the accusation against the exploitation. However, inheriting Carné’s ensemble style, the film has achieved to encompass the whole exploitative structure that transcends time inside of Izutsuya. The film exemplifies the creativity of a remake that induces new expressions within the original work’s restrictions.

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