S. Kracauer, in his book ‘Theory of Film’, tries to find the significance of the medium where the nature of the medium follows properties of the medium itself. And he calls the findings to be ‘the basic aesthetic principle’. He posturates that the properties of the photography and the film are to record and to reveal the physical reality.
He analyzes the common problems of the photography and the film; the problems concerning the photographic or the cinematic approach, affinities and appeals. It is supposed that they are making the core of his theory.
Especially, the concept of affinities is important. They consist of unstaged reality, the fortuitous, endlessness and the indeterminate that are in common with photography and film, and a flow of life is added actually to the case of film. Affinities are to be considered aspects of the physical reality. This concept of affinities determine the condition of the properties of media. Because they are able to be recorded and to be revealed only by the photographic and the cinematic media.
The purpose of my research is to look for the possibility of a new image-making, and especially to try to find some methods of recording and revealing of the physical aspects of the reality made through the contemporary image media.
Masakazu Nakai, who proved his cultivated tastes in the illuminating speculations on arts, devoted short life to developing new conceptions of the world and ‘Wissenschaft’. This eminent student of aesthetics was among the members of the generation blessed with abundant heritages from Kyoto Gakuha.
In the days of intellectual crisis from 1920’s to 40’s, when some attempt was a pressing need for philosophy to be vitalized, Nakai’s choice was to take up the survey of the cinema = image arts within an extensive historical perspective of Ästhetik = Kunstwissenschaft.
Except for the short period of speculative stagnation in wartime, he was continuously concerned from the creative point of view with probing into the aesthetic implications of this genre, which would in turn present new perspectives to philosophy.
Among the topics treated by this incisive mind are subjectivity; function; technology; and language. The keen inquiries into these issues do and will remain the best stimulation for those engaged in the theoretical and historical studies of image arts.
I think that different images or notions of time is a important theme in Video Art. By retrospectively considering the problem of time-control in the development of Video technology, I would like to search for a more contemporary mode on time-phenomenon in Video Art.
In this paper, I select and examine the work “Ancient of Days” by Bill Viola. In this piece, I observed the way of producing a image of time in the post-production which editing process made time-lapse sequence, on the basis of “the continuity of taping” as a characteristic of Video (real time → time-lapse sequence → VIDEO TIME). On the other hand, taking consideration of experimental films and musics, I understood that the act of “seeing” by viewer is a mode of time-consciousness in itself. And I concluded that this kind of piece was a model of time-perception.
Until the beginning of this century photography was not associated with art and design. It was considered simply as a mean of mechanical sketching. Later on, however, a chance for breaking this alienation sprang from the Modern Movement in Germany which transferred great emphasis from handicraft to mechanical engineering, thus inspiring a formative capability for mechanical production. This encouraged the reconsideration of photography as useful device for design, and, later in 1920’s, it attained full recognition in the works of the “Bauhaus” and the “Deutscher Werkbund”. This report, making full use of abundant source material, deals with the development of photography in the Modern Movement, and attempts to throw much additional light upon Modern Design’s assimilation of photographic influence. I maintain that the movement, later in 1920’s, became the foundation of photographic activities for design in the machine age. It is not too much to say that it forecast the future close relationship between photography and design.