The first is about the way of well-maintaining the flatness of photosensitive material. The unexposed film in a camera or a film holder, the original negative inserted into an enlarger, the photographic paper set on an enlarging easel, all these should be hold as perfectly flat as a plate glass, while the situation today is as deplorable as ever. Since the defect in flatness causes the out-focus or distortion of the whole or part of animage on the film or the paper, the improvement of image quality in the present condition is desperate inspite of the remarkable progress of camera and photosensitive material. Here is proposed the unprecedented method of well-maintaining the flatness of all kinds of photo sensitive material; the unexposed film in a camera, the original negative in the process of darkroom work.
The second is about the new method of controlling color balance in color photography. Particularly the color-printing by the negative-positive system today shows, as is often the case with popular prints of service-size, the reddish finish one time and the bluish the other from the same original negative. The present situation is that the automatic printer causes color failure, restraining the strong color in the image, while manual correction fails to produce a normal print owing to the uncertainty of operator’s sensibility and memory of color.
If we record the light from light sources on the film at the time of photographing, that will be absolutely helpful to produce a normal color print without color failure even with the automatic printer, on condition that the recorded light shows colorless neutral grey. This proposed method is available with any ordinary camera.
The problem at the heart of photographic expression through 1970s was essentiality of photography. “Mirrors and Windows” directed by John Szarkowski at MOMA in 1978 had a historical aspect on this problem. Two conceptions of photography – a mirror reflecting a portrait of the artist who made it and a window through which one might better know the world – show the principle of photography. There have been attempts of approach to contemporary photographic expression, one of which is “NEW PHOTOGRAPHICS” directed by William Jenkins at IMP/GHT in 1974.
The photography of NEW TOPOGRAPHICS has something in common with neutral and objective attitude to the world. It must not be understood as a new trend of expression but as a tradition of American Landscape from the painters of Hudson River-school. Modern American landscape photography typified by Ansel Adams was deprived of entity in photographic description. But NEW TOPOGRAPHICS acquired new entity to return to classical landscape photography typified by Frontier Photographers like Timothy O’Sullivan.
William Jenkins says, in the introduction of catalogue, that if “New Topographics” has a central purpose it is simply to postulate, at least for the time being, what it means to make a documentary photograph. NEW TOPOGRAPHICS presented an aspect of Landscape as Document.
The March of Time is a monthly screen-magazine whose first issue was released in 1 February 1935. It revolutionalized the existing concept of newsreel. The success of his series created imitations such as Canada Carries On and The World in American. Chairman of The March of Time was Roy Larsen, who was a member of the Time/Life Board. It is obvious that the series was influenced by contemporary flourishing photojournalism which began in Germany in 1920’s with such periodicals as Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung and made a rapid progress in America with such magazines as Life.
This paper discusses the relation between The March of Time and photojournalism, and argues characteristics that the films and the photos by photojournalists had in common.
Cinema consists of 24 still pictures per second, so any motion doesn’t exist there.
A gap between a frame and the succeeding one creates an impression of motion in the audience’s imagination.
Cinema is an hybrid of realism and fiction, and creates vague and diverse images. Its most powerful point is to make the audience change their structure of sensation and to bring them into a fictitious situation.
The most important cutting should be based on the internal movement of a situation. By recognizing the element of still picture in motion picture which appears always moving, cinema can offer a stronger impact.