The chinese characters for "Eizo" which we Japanese use to mean visual image have a hard and mechanical impression, compared to "image" which means both inner and visual images. Its double meaning enables the word "image" to approach the subject from both the sides of our being, internal and external.
J.-D. Nasio witnessed the separation of eyes and manazashi with one of her patients in Les yeux de Laure. Jacque Lacan, following J.P.Sartre, argued that eyes and manazashi do not coexist but hide each other. Lacan saw the embodyment of the invisible power of manazashi in the symbolic object flying in air in the middle space of the tableau, "The Ambassadors" by Hans Holbein the younger. He regards it as the expression of the hidden male desire incarnated in a skull=phallus image.
The image as the projection of manazashi reflects the spirit of the viewer as well as his or her figure.
La naissance de la photographie deverait marquer essentiellement la fin de la fonction de réapparition de la peinture. Ainsi la peinture s'est rendue indépendante, la peinture abstraite a été crée. Tandis que l'on parvenait à une entente de l'originalité de la photographie par la manifestation et la naissance de I'école impressionniste.
Courbet et Manet prenaient copie des objets réels sur leurs tableaux. De cette façon, ils arrivaient à la vérité. Monet et les impressionistes peignaient des paysages qui ne contenaient pas la signification. On pourrait reconnaître des photos comme œuvres d'art grâce à ces tableaux.
There are some photographs which present the essence of photographs. For example, AKASAKI Mima, a young photographer, takes a photograph of inanimate object, but her works are full of life and luminescence. So we are inpressed that the subject lived when they were shot by her. On the other, her works give a suggestion that they are died because the moment when they were shot passed. Thus photo is antinomic. OKADA Shuji, a young photographer too, suggest really exist of the subject and their "death" on the present time. These works remaind us of the photo theory that Roland Barthes touched upon uniquely.
The photo is commonplace thing today. But the photo that remind us "death" and "life" gives us really understanding.
Photograph composed of functions brought about by three factors, such as Optics, Chemistry and Time. Vision to invade into human brain without one's knowledge. This tenor of this statement is whether it is possible for these two ever to melt together inside the picture. This writer, being a photographer, is to give its report on…thinking of every shooting theme from the scene.
Its contents are described in the five items coverring <Of Sea-on the Waves>, <Of White Human Shadow>, <Of Subjects>, <Of Paintings by Monet>, <Of Details and Content of Photographs>.
100 years have passed since the appearance of modern photography. During this period, two basic elements of photography, the camera and film have been highly developed. However, as to the photographic technology which should combine these two elements, it is hard to find the degree of progress found in other devices.
Photographic technology should have developed as a system that enables various delicate expressions. Indeed, we find a quite complicated situation in the prevailing method of negative printing, that is, even with the most advanced fine-tuning camera and with proper photographing techniques, you cannot gain the exact result that you expected. Why has such a difficulty come about? It is because today's photographic system does not have a clear printing criteria so as to reproduce correct colors. The current printing system has not caught up with the advanced high-tuning camers.
The advent of the disposable camera is a symbolic phenomenon that suggests the above-mentioned situation. In general, disposable cameras don't have accurate exposure controls. You can get a acceptable quality print with such cameras, but it is meaningless to balance light and adjust exposure strictly. It means that, as for fine-tuning cameras, today's printing system has a "misplaced automatism" from the beginning.
In this paper, the author tried to point out various problems in modern photographic technology, i. e. state-of-the-art printing systems, exposure mechanisms, maintenance of the flatness-retaining performance, resources and environmental effects concerning service-print, etc…The author also presents a new system of photography that respects the human mind and environment with his unique know-how to improve this field of art. The author also adds soms consideration to factors which disturbed such improvements.
In 1917 the Metropolitan Police Board enforced "Regulations of the Moving Picture Exhibitions" in Tokyo. But these regulations are very strange in our point of view. Because they didn't attach importance to the censorship which is usually a means of repression by the police. Why didn't they so?
First because the exhibition of moving pictures still retained the quality of a live preformance. For example, it was accompanied by a lecturer (benshi)'s performance and a live music performnce. This fact made it nonsense for the police to censor films. For a film changed its meaning at every projection. So the police disciplined lecturers and inhibited the chained play (which is a special form of exhibition combining play with movies) instead of censoring films.
Second because spectators in that era made an indecent atmosphere in a movie theater. So they didn't devote themselves to a film. They also entertained an indecent atomospher. This made it nonsence for the police to censor films, too. For spectators received an excessive meaning from this atomosphere.
So the censorship can have an effect only after modernizing the communication in movie theaters. This was impossible in that era.