eizogaku
Online ISSN : 2189-6542
Print ISSN : 0286-0279
ISSN-L : 0286-0279
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  • Hana WASHITANI
    2019 Volume 102 Pages 31-53
    Published: July 25, 2019
    Released: November 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The problems in unemployment caused by the Dodge Line had reached a crisis level when the Unemployment Relief Public Works Program (URPW) began to provide the unemployed with daily outdoor work through the job placement office in each district starting in 1949.

    People working under the aegis of the URPW were nicknamed nikoyon. These nikoyon workers were often depicted in the 1950s Japanese screen media including film and lantern-slide gento as a special representation, which embodied human rights, poverty, and labor problems in postwar Japan. Films such as And Yet We Live/ Dokkoi Ikiteru (1951) or Nikoyon Story/ Nikoyon Monogatari represent male UPRW workers’ hardships of life.

    Moreover, UPRW workers produced several independent films as part of their union activities. For example, some UPRW union members Iidabashi, Tokyo produced a lantern slide film titled Nikoyon (1955) on their own. Nikoyon focused on everyday problems which female URPW workers facing. In 1962, UPRW workers union commissioned Mochizuki Yuko to direct a semi-documentary film titled Koko ni Ikiru/ Here We Live (1962), which also offered the perspective of female URPW workers. In this article, I examine the process by which UPRW workers used screen media to produce their own representations, and how they showed that outdoor day workers could be women and not just men.

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  • Yoshihiro KUWABARA
    2019 Volume 102 Pages 54-74
    Published: July 25, 2019
    Released: November 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The principle of the “picture leading sound” is widely applied in animation production with regard to the synchronization of screen images and audio inputs, it is believed that the final product is superior when the picture leads the sound by two frames. For example, Disney’s short animation movie series “The Silly Symphony” was produced for 10 years from 1929, and initially, the rule of maintaining the unity of moving pictures and music was followed. However, computer analyses confirm that with time, pictures began leading the sounds. While the principle of the “picture leading sound” is simply a rule of thumb for filmmakers, and the scientific rationale for this practical standard has not yet been sufficiently investigated. It is said that human beings perceive “deviations” with screen images when their corresponding sounds are three frames or 0.1 second or more apart regardless of whether they are viewing a live- action or an animation film. Therefore, it is necessary to refer to theories of perceptual psychology to adequately understand the principle of the “picture leading sound” to develop a hypothesis about film production norms concerning stimuli reaching the human brain.

    This paper aims to present a theoretical explanation for the adoption of the above manner of frame processing in filmmaking. It further intends to analyze specific examples from cinema to reveal that the method of image preceding sound brings about artistic dynamism in all motion pictures and not in animated films alone.

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  • Yuma HAYAKAWA
    2019 Volume 102 Pages 75-93
    Published: July 25, 2019
    Released: November 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper uses the suture theory as an analytical tool to elucidate the mechanism of character formation (and its failure) by analyzing a cryptic shot in Richard Fleischer’s See No Evil (1971). Film theorists have regarded the suture theory as a process of suturing space through an intersection of the eyes of people both on- and off-screen. However, this definition should be expanded to include the mechanism by which characters are formed.

    Scholars and critics have commended this film as it creates suspense in an invisible manner. They nevertheless have overlooked a cryptic underwater shot that captures Jacko from below at the climax, which is ironic since the character being strangled is blind, thus relating to the invisibility of violence and death. In my discussion, I characterize this shot as a “Blind POV,” indicating the “point of view” of the blind protagonist, Sarah. Furthermore, the killer’s boots and Jacko’s face never appear in the same shot, as he takes off his boots before the climax. This generates a split between the boots and Jacko’s face, that is, a split of “body suture,” so Jacko does not explicitly embody the character of the killer. Jacko’s reflection is visible in a mirror on-screen when he sneaks up on Sarah from off-screen. His face is a signifier depicting an invisible murderer’s face, which remains in the absent field (off-screen). Finally, I suggest that his face goes beyond being a signifier of absence (off-screen) and exposes an absence (nothingness) in the underwater shot.

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  • Shimpei OTANI
    2019 Volume 102 Pages 94-114
    Published: July 25, 2019
    Released: November 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper illustrates the differences between the activities of Toshio Matsumoto and Susumu Hani in the 1950s and early 1960s as they sought new ways to decipher complex realities.

    First, it is shown that the artist of the time, especially those in the Japanese avant- garde art movement led by Kiyoteru Hanada and Kobo Abe, shared in the belief that there was a necessity for these new assessments. In their works, this group addressed realism, directly, which included their investigation of artistic and political superiority and the writer’s attitude toward power. The younger filmmakers of the newer generation, including Matsumoto and Hani, shared an awareness of these problems.

    In the second section, I consider Matsumoto’s avant-garde theory of documentary cinema, especially his critique of the Japanese Communist Party and its use of movies to illustrate their policies. In fact, he intended not necessarily to enlighten his audiences but rather to destroy their stereotypes in an appeal to their sensibility.

    In the third section, I describe Hani’s cinema theory and discuss how it differs from Matsumoto’s. Hani’s focus through the camera was on the person surrounded and illuminated by the inconvenient world surrounding them. Matsumoto was critical of Hani’s work, and by using his criticism as a point of discussion, I examine the differences between the two.

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  • Masaaki TSUKIJI
    2019 Volume 102 Pages 115-136
    Published: July 25, 2019
    Released: November 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The concept of “sign”, as posed by Gilles Deleuze is a fundamental element of his two volumes Cinema 1 and Cinema 2. Understanding the concept of “sign” is crucial to a comprehensive appreciation of Deleuze’s overview of cinematic theory as a whole. In addition, the Deleuzean concept of “sign” has ongoing and timeless value in the field of visual arts and sciences, as well as in classical film studies. While analyses of his cinematic theory abound, most film theoreticians deal with the topic of Deleuze’s signs only in passing. This essay aims to clarify the importance of the concept while highlighting its unique character through a comparative reading and commentary of the second chapter of Cinema 2. In that chapter, Deleuze compares Christian Metz’s linguistic based theory of “sign” with his own understanding, which was derived and primarily drawn from American logician C.S. Peirce’s theory of signs and from Henri Bergson’s theory of images.

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  • Tsubura IMAI
    2019 Volume 102 Pages 137-154
    Published: July 25, 2019
    Released: November 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    By analyzing From Three to Sex (Danchizuma Hirusagari no joji, dir. Shogoro Nishimura, 1971) and Secret Rendezvous (Danchizuma Shinobiai, dir. Shogoro Nishimura, 1972), starring Kazuko Shirakawa, this paper aims to show that that the danchi wife sought release from being the “danchi wife in a closed room.” The danchi wife is a woman who, while living a seemingly ideal lifestyle, is isolated from society. Danchi-wife films starring Kazuko Shirakawa had a great influence on the danchi-wife image, which portrayed a couple consisting of a danchi wife seeking to be released from the existence of a “danchi wife in a closed room” and an unstable danchi husband, who was entirely integrated into his company. Shirakawa, who married and became a real danchi wife, connected the conflicting images of danchi wife films and “danchi wife in a closed room” and originated the image of the danchi wife in reverse. Despite the fact that Three to Sex and Secret Rendezvous were danchi wife films seeking release from being “danchi wife in a closed room,” they were forged as the origin of the danchi-wife image.

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  • Masaki KOMAI
    2019 Volume 102 Pages 155-173
    Published: July 25, 2019
    Released: November 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In France, some filmmakers have advocated promoting the art films since Film d’art started producing films in 1908. However, when Louis Delluc pointed out in his film critique the backwardness of French films compared to American and Swedish films, what did Delluc consider as a problem of French films. Therefore, we examined what kind of elements Delluc would like to introduce to French films when he directed his films, by analyzing Delluc's plays and novels that he had started writing during World War I.

    Delluc, who had been criticizing and making dramas before World War I, began writing novels to express dissent against the war. We find that Delluc have tried to use first-person narratives and various forms of novels, and he has actively adopted the methods of the novel despite being a theater man. Later, when Delluc directed the film, he incorporated these methods, which Delluc gained by writing novels, into his own films, using film techniques he learned from American and Swedish films through film criticism. We think that this trial has led the French film to a new phase.

    From the above point of view, we consider what kind of influence relationship between Delluc's literature that he started writing novels during World War I and films that he began to look at the film consciously during World War I.

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  • Hiromi SAIKA
    2019 Volume 102 Pages 174-194
    Published: July 25, 2019
    Released: November 19, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This article argues that The Blade (1995) directed by Tsui Hark employs a subjective camera by using two techniques that both forefront the position of the subjective human. The Blade is the one of the most emblematic works in respect to violent and visceral images on screen. Previous studies have focused on this violence; for example, Stephen Teo discusses the violence in terms of the look of the camera creating an objective shot focuses on the objects around subjective human. In this way, according to Teo, the diegesis of this film can construct a concrete locality, not just the abstract, which is the imaginative Chineseness that Tsui delineates.

    However, this film has another characteristic that inverts this discussion, the female voice over. This film narrated by the subjective voice over incorporates the female subjective look. The voice over is unreliable and unstable—a voice that hovers between the embodied and the disembodied. Due to this instability, critics have argued that the narrative is unnecessarily complex and breaks down traditional polarities such as male/female, disembodied/embodied, human/animal, and subject/object, which affects spectators instinctively. Finally, this film dismantles narrative boundaries created by the camera when the director, Tsui Hark, embodies and invades the diegesis through the voice over and camera eye. As such, this film constructs a variable and superficial world through his subjective vision.

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