e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology
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Regular Papers
  • Muhammad Samir Ullah, Shohei Asai, Yousuke Inomata, Khuat Thi Thu Hien ...
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Devices and Sensors
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 7-12
    Released: February 25, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We have studied the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) of a rubbed novel polyimide (PI) film having steroidal structure side chains prepared by spin coating on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate. The second order nonlinear susceptibility χijk(2) elements were obtained from the fitting of the SHG data. The symmetry of the polymer chains roughly belonged to Cs symmetry with the rubbing direction parallel to the mirror plane. The average polar (tilt) angle of the rubbed PI chains was determined to be around 16° by using the measured χijk(2) elements. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.7]

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  • Chenxing Wang, Hitoshi Nakahara, Yahachi Saito
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Science and -Technology
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 13-18
    Released: March 04, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Thermal decomposition of SiC has been used for the fabrication of high quality monolayer graphene and graphene nanoribbons on semi-insulating substrates. In this work, we propose a selective oxygen etching method to remove buffer layers on SiC surfaces that are connected to monolayer graphene formed from step edges. A thermal treatment in an extreme low partial pressure oxygen diluted by argon atmosphere was found to be effective to etch only the buffer layers and remain monolayer graphene areas intact, which might be significant for the application of graphene to electric/spintronic devices. The etching processes of surface buffer layer investigated by in situ scanning electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy revealed an etching rate dependence on a distance from a step edges, suggesting a distribution of crystallinity of surface buffer layer on a terrace. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.13]

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  • Takayuki Yamagishi, Kenta Honobe, Satoka Aoyagi, Mayumi Okawa, Tomoko ...
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Bio-Science and -Technology
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 19-24
    Released: March 18, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Chemical imaging techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS) imaging and imaging spectroscopy have grown to be important in a variety of fields. Infrared spectrum information, for example is essential to evaluate organic and biological samples. Recently, near-field spectroscopy techniques have been developed that enable higher spatial resolution above the one usually obtainable due to wavelength limitations. In terms of chemical imaging for organic materials, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is one of the powerful techniques because of extremely high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of approximately 100 nm. Since TOF-SIMS does not always provide complete information on complex samples, a complementary technique of similar spatial resolution is required. Near-field infrared microscope (NFIR) is the most promising candidate for a complementary analysis method along with TOF-SIMS. It is, however, often difficult to interpret NFIR data because of the low signal intensity in near-field infrared. Multivariate analysis techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), which have successfully been applied to TOF-SIMS imaging data, would also likely be helpful for NFIR data interpretation. In this study, a multicomponent model polymer sample was measured with NFIR and then the image data along with the complex NFIR spectra were analysed by PCA. As a result, the components in the model sample can be separately displayed based on groups of peaks specific to every component indicated by PCA. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.19]

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  • Lean L. Dasallas, Arriane P. Lacaba, Wilson O. Garcia
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Thin Films
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 25-30
    Released: March 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The crystallinity, surface morphology and topography of the femtosecond pulsed laser deposited Nd:YAG film under in-situ and post deposition heat treatment were examined. Heat treatment improved the crystallinity of the film with the increase in the reflecting planes shown in X-ray diffraction data. Scanning electron micrograph of the heat treated film surface indicates a small degree of melting. Surface topography of the as-deposited Nd:YAG film under AFM shows size variation to within few tens of nanometers indicating the generation of nanoparticles. Temperature dependence of the cross section area, height and surface roughness of the film was determined and explained by the volume free energy of the film. Our results demonstrate the novel use of femtosecond laser to ablate and deposit laser crystal as well as heat treatment to engineer the structural properties of the film. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.25]

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  • Seyedeh Maryamdokht Taimoory, John F. Trant, Abbas Rahdar, Mousa Aliah ...
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Science and -Technology
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 31-39
    Released: April 03, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, are promising inorganic nanomaterials for future biomedical applications due to their low toxicity and unique magnetic properties. However, the synthesis of these particles can often be expensive, energy intensive, and non-scalable, requiring the addition of surfactants to stabilize the material to control the particle size and avoid agglomeration. We wish to report a simple, green, surfactant-free electrochemical synthesis of these materials using a closed aqueous system at ambient temperature. Particle diameter, between 19 and 33 nm, was controlled by simply modifying the distance between the electrodes. These magnetite nanoparticles were then fully characterized using both spectroscopy and microscopy. Vibrational magnetometry indicates that as the size of the particle decreases, the magnetic hysteretic gap decreases, although for samples below 25 nm no inter-sample difference was observed. To support this experimental data, we carried out a Density Functional Theory (DFT) analysis of magnetite containing more than three iron atoms in the cluster, an essential proposition as magnetite contains three distinct iron species. These calculations were used to support the experimental observations, and closely reproduced both the experimental IR spectrum, and the XRD pattern. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed dose responsive behavior for the nanoparticles, and demonstrated that they are non-toxic at clinically relevant concentrations; below 200 μg/mL we observed no toxicity in a 48-hour standard assay. This work represents the first DFT based simulation of this detailed magnetite cluster, and demonstrates that this sustainable synthetic method is capable of producing nanomaterials with a physical and biological profile that might make them suitable for biomedical applications. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.31]

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  • Norio Inui, Sho Iwasaki
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Science and -Technology
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 40-49
    Released: April 08, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We consider the computation of a long-range interaction energy between a single graphene sheet and a silicon substrate, which arises from vacuum fluctuations. The interaction energy obtained by summation of the Lennard Jones potential between a carbon atom in a single graphene sheet and a silicon atom is compared with the dispersion energy (Casimir energy) obtained by combining the Lifshitz theory and the Dirac model for graphene. Deviation of the pairwise summation of the Lennard-Jones potential from the Casimir energy is corrected by adding a power function term, whose coefficient depends on the distance between atoms. We also consider the interaction between a graphene sheet and a silicon dioxide substrate. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.40]

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  • Yuki Koda, Hirosuke Sumida, Satoshi Ogawa, Chie Tsukada, Hirofumi Nama ...
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Materials
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 50-54
    Released: April 15, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Rh nanoparticles have been fabricated by the evaporation method using the He gas in the Rh evaporation chamber, connected with the pre-evacuation chamber of BL6N1 at Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center (Aichi SR). The electronic and geometric properties of the Rh nanoparticles have been verified without atmosphere exposure (in situ XPS) and after atmosphere exposure (ex situ XPS) using SR-XPS and TEM. The size of Rh nanoparticles is estimated 1.8±0.5 nm in diameter and deposited on a substrate. Judging from the result of the in situ XPS analysis with photon energy of 2.0 keV and 3.5 keV, the surface of the deposited Rh nanoparticles without atmosphere exposure is the metallic state. On the other side, the outermost surface changes into Rh oxide after atmosphere exposure even in a short time. For a long time atmosphere exposure moreover, the Rh oxide increases in the depth direction, and the deep area is in the higher oxidation state. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.50]

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  • Hiroshi Kuwahata, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takaaki Yamaguchi
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Reaction and Dynamics
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 55-64
    Released: April 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Dust figures can be used to visualize the distributions of positive and negative charges that remain on the surface of an insulator using two types of charged powder; one is attached to the insulator and positive charges, and the other is attached to negative charges. In this study, dust figures were used to visualize the spreading pattern of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet when an insulator was irradiated with the plasma jet in air. Observation using a high-speed camera indicates that streamers existed in the plasma and served as a source of both positive and negative charges. An ebonite plate was used as an insulator. White rosin powder and red lead (colored orange) powder were used to obtain positive and negative charge diagrams, respectively. When the ebonite plate was irradiated with an atmospheric-pressure argon (Ar) plasma jet in air, a disc- or ring-shaped dust figure was formed because of the residual positive and negative charges. The shape and size of the dust figure depended on the spreading pattern of the plasma jet on the ebonite plate. The dependence of the dust figure formed by both charges on the irradiation time (1–60 s) and distance (2–40 mm) of the plasma, the applied voltage (4–10 kV), and the Ar gas flow rate (5 or 10 L/min)was determined. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.55]

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  • Kei Wakabayashi, Daichi Yamaura, Kazuki Ito, Naoya Kameda, Toshio Ogin ...
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Materials
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 69-73
    Released: May 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We have successfully fabricated hollow core-shell type Si/C nanocomposites using a simple process. Si powder was grinded to form Si nanoparticles, mixed with sucrose as a carbon source and ammonium chloride as an expansion agent, and finally annealed in Ar atmosphere. During the annealing, carbon hollow spheres encapsulating Si nanoparticles were spontaneously fabricated through dehydrogenation reaction of the sucrose to form carbon balloons and the balloon expansion by ammonium gas generated during ammonium chloride decomposition. Volume of the empty spaces in the core-shell structure can be controlled by the rising rate in the annealing temperature. This method is suitable for industrial production of hollow Si/C nanocomposites because of its simplicity. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.69]

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  • A.V. Borhade, D. R. Tope, G. B. Dabhade
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Catalysis
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 74-80
    Released: July 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The hexagonal nanocrystalline ZnMnO3 powder was prepared from activated mixture by an ecofriendly solid state reaction using mechanochemical method. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by various investigative analytical techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-diffused reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-DRS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with EDAX, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. The average particle size of ZnMnO3 was found to be 82 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared ZnMnO3 nanoparticles have been investigated by the degradation of Erioglaucine dye. It is revealed that the product exhibits a pronounced photocatalytic activity under the influence of UV-visible light irradiation. The degradation mechanism of Erioglaucine in presence of ZnMnO3 was established by using LC-MS technique. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.74]

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  • Elnaz Haddadi, Hadi Ghattan Kashani, Masoud Shariat panahi, Hasan Nahv ...
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Science and -Technology
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 81-86
    Released: August 05, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Despite the large volume of research dedicated to the structure and functioning of nano- electromechanical systems, few researchers have addressed the practical problems involved in their manufacture and manipulation. This paper investigates the friction phenomenon in Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) being grasped/manipulated by a nanogripper. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to model the combination of friction and molecular adhesion that governs the mechanical behavior of a CNT when subjected to various loads from the gripper. It is shown that for a certain gripping force, friction between the CNT and the gripper is nonlinearly proportional to the contact area up to a certain value, and remains unchanged afterwards. This is contrary to the common belief that any amount of friction force required for detaching/relocating of CNTs could be achieved by increasing the gripping force. The implications of this finding could affect the way nanogrippers are designed for the construction/manipulation of nanoparticles. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.81]

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  • Seyyed Ebrahim Mousavi, Hassan Pahlavanzadeh, Habib Ale Ebrahim
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Materials
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 87-92
    Released: September 23, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this article, CeO2-La2O3-CuO ternary oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method. Taguchi experimental design was used for producing high surface area ternary oxides. The effect of precipitating agent and its concentration, percentage of lanthanum and copper, calcination temperature, and calcination time, on the surface area of nanoparticles, were studied. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, BET surface area, XRD, EDX, N2 adsorption isotherm, and BJH pore size distributions. The maximum surface area obtained for these nanoparticles was 99.4 m2/g. Also, performance of ternary oxides was examined in the reactor test, as a catalyst. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.87]

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  • Yasutake Toyoshima
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Thin Films
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 93-95
    Released: September 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is generally accepted that a pair of SiH3 radicals are responsible for the film growth reactions of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, namely a first SiH3 radical to pick up surface-terminating H leaving active site on the growing surface, and a second SiH3 to stick there. Since the first reaction step is rate determining, the film growth rate is proportional (1st order) to the SiH3 density. However, in some case, 2nd order dependence on SiH3 density is reported, especially when the film growth rate (and thus the SiH3 density) is quite low. This funny behavior contradicts the general concept that a higher order reaction will take place when the number density of the concerning species is high. In this report, a detailed analysis of these growth reactions based on the method of steady state is given to prevail that the origin of such a pseudo 2nd order dependence is clearly explained by introducing the reverse reaction to the first step that determines the growth rate. In addition, discussion is presented to show that such a reverse reaction is plausible. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.93]

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  • T. Fukuda, I. Kishida
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Structures
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 96-101
    Released: October 14, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    First-principles total energy calculations were performed to investigate stable atomic structures for the displacive adsorption of silicon on the Ni(110) surface. Gibbs free energies were compared for 0-4 silicon atoms embedded into the top layer in a 2×2 unit for the Ni(110) surface. When a half monolayer of Si was embedded, the p(1×2) structure had the lowest energy, and the c(2×2) structure had only 13 meV/1×1 higher energy than the p(1×2) structure. By extending to a 4×2 unit, the c(4×2) structures had almost the same energy with the p(1×2) structure. Alternating Si-Ni chains along the close-packed [1-10] row play an essential role to stabilize these structures. Si and Ni are alternatively aligned in separate [1-10] rows forming a p(2×1) structure, which had 276 meV/1 1 higher energy than the p(1×2) structure. For the p(2×1) structure, unique one-dimensional electronic bands derived by the Si-3s states were formed along the [1-10] direction. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.96]

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  • Masakazu Ichikawa
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Science and -Technology
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 103-107
    Released: October 21, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Differential equations are derived for localized bulk and surface plasmons in metal nanostructures in the random phase approximation (RPA) at the high frequency condition. A differential equation for the scalar potential in the RPA gives a position-dependent Drude-like dielectric function. Using the dielectric function, a differential equation for the vector potential is derived in the Lorentz gauge. A corrected RPA differential equation for the scalar potential is then derived by using the differential equation for the vector potential and the Lorentz condition. The vector potential contribution to the electric field in the Lorentz gauge is found negligible compared with the scalar potential one in metal nanostructures. This indicates that the scalar potential plays important roles in analyzing the localized plasmons in metal nanostructures as reported previously. The corrected RPA differential equations are found equivalent to the Maxwell equations using the position-dependent Drude-like dielectric function. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.103]

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  • Kimimori Hamada, Akira Mikami, Hideki Naruoka, Kikuo Yamabe
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Nano-Science and -Technology
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 109-114
    Released: October 31, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is known that the interface nitrogen density of the 4H-SiC Si-face, C-face, and a-face increases as a result of the NO-POA process, that the electron mobility increases as the nitrogen density increases, and that each face has a different interface nitrogen saturation density. In contrast, the anisotropy of the nitridation characteristics of the m-face, which is regarded as a promising channel for high-performance trench MOSFETs, is not well known. To identify the nitridation status of the m-face after NO-POA, the MOS interface structures with a SiO2 formed on m-face by CVD and treated by NO-POA was investigated by SIMS, HAXPES, XPS, and XAFS. In the same way as the other faces, it was found that the nitrogen segregates on the SiO2/SiC MOS interface, that most of the nitrogen combines with Si, and that the interface nitrogen density has a unique saturation value. The nitrogen density saturation value on the m-face measured by SIMS was 9.8 × 1014 cm−2. This value is approximately 1.5 times the exposed carbon density on the top surface of the m-face. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.109]

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  • Ryo Kadowaki, Naoki Sano, Tadashi Abukawa
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Thin Films
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 115-120
    Released: November 11, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Thin films of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are generally exfoliated from a mineral crystal. Impurities and contaminants of mineral origin may spoil the expected functions of MoS2 thin- film devices because they have a strong influence on the properties of the exfoliated films. The effects of surface contaminants on cleaved or exfoliated MoS2 surfaces were investigated using photoemission electron microscopy and selected-area ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy under several exfoliation conditions. The chemical composition and crystallinity of surfaces were also investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The bulk crystal included a limited number of contaminated interfaces, at which the crystal was easily cleaved. Therefore, repeated exfoliations are required to expose a clean surface for exfoliated films. Annealing at ca. 400°C in a vacuum was effective to reduce contamination of the cleaved MoS2 surface. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.115]

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  • A. H. M. Yusoff, M. N. Salimi, M. F. Jamlos
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Micro- and Nano-Fabrication
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 121-126
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Magnetic transportation of therapeutic agents to the infected site in the body promises a superb platform for cancer treatment. To increase the safety profile and to stay clear from the agglomeration issue, core shell structure of magnetite-hydroxyapatite (Fe3O4-HAp) nanoparticles was developed. Fe3O4 as the core was synthesised by coprecipitation method which then coated with HAp layer through the sol-gel technique to maintain its high crystalline property. Optimum process parameters were applied during the fabrication process to yield small nanocomposites. The results show that HAp retained its phase purity and molecular structure even with the addition of Fe3O4 as analysed by XRD and FTIR. The FESEM and TEM micrographs show a magnificent monodispersed distribution of functionalised Fe3O4-HAp nanoparticles with the size of around 36 nm. EDXRF result confirmed the Ca/P ratio of 1.63, close to the value of main inorganic material of human bones (HAp) and possessed the superparamagnetic properties with saturation magnetisation of 23.274 emu/g as displayed by VSM curves. Thus, the dual affinity of the magnetic Fe3O4 and excellent biocompatibility HAp offer a synergetic effect as the drug or gene delivery vehicle to stealthy localize in infection site. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.121]

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  • Etsuo Fukuda, Tetsuo Endoh, Takashi Ishikawa, Koji Izunome, Kazutaka K ...
    Type: Regular Paper
    Subject area: Micro- and Nano-Fabrication
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 127-134
    Released: December 14, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In past studies, the Si emission phenomenon is one of the issues for fabrication of 3D structure devices such as FinFETs and Vertical MOSFETs. In this paper, it is found that novel Si emission phenomena depending on the surface oxygen concentration of Si wafer occur, when Si pillars patterned less than 100 nm are oxidized. A wafer with high oxygen concentration which is over 1.0×1018 atoms/cm3 can suppress Si emission from the Si pillar compared to the low oxygen concentration wafers which are less than 1.0×1017 atoms/cm3. The difference of oxygen concentration in the Si substrate is expected to largely depend on the behavior of oxygen atom in the Si wafer before and after oxidation. In case of an oxygen concentration ratio exceeding the solid solubility of Si, oxygen diffuses outward from the Si substrate after oxidation, whereas oxygen diffuses inward when the concentration is below the solid solubility. It was also found that the larger the degree of injection of oxygen into the Si substrate after oxidation, the larger the emission amount of Si from the Si pillar. Finally, we discuss the mechanism of above experimental Si emission phenomena in nanoscale Si pillar with previous first principle model of silicon oxidation process. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.127]

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Conference -AsiaNANO 2016-
  • Naoyuki Kaga, Rumi Horiuchi, Atsuro Yokoyama, Tsukasa Akasaka, Yasuhir ...
    Type: Conference -AsiaNANO 2016-
    Subject area: Bio-Science and -Technology
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 1-6
    Released: February 11, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Surface topography influences cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we used a nano-imprinting method to develop a titanium sheet with 500 nm-, 1 μm-, and 2 μm-wide grooved and pillared structures. We investigated the effects of the surfaces with the micro- and nano-structures on Ca9-22 cell adhesion and proliferation. Ca9-22 cells were cultured in DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum and counted adhered cells at 1 and 24 h postculture. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess cell morphology. Immunofluorescence cell staining was used to evaluate vinculin formation to observe the presence of focal contacts at 24 h. There was no difference in cell adhesion between cells cultured on a plane or groove after 1 h. However, at 24 h, the adhesion of cells cultured on the groove was reduced. In addition, the cell adhesion count on the pillar was less than that of cells cultured on a plane at both 1 hour and 24 h post-seeding. Furthermore, in the groove of the Ti sheet after 1 and 24 h, cell expansion occurred in the grooved direction. These results demonstrate that the micro and nano-grooved and pillared structures on the titanium sheet control Ca9-22 cell adhesion and orientation. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.1]

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  • Shota Kobayashi, Olaf Karthaus, Viktor Fischer
    Type: Conference -AsiaNANO 2016-
    Subject area: Crystal Growth
    Volume 15 (2017) Pages 65-68
    Released: May 13, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Biomineralization is the process of forming hard exo- or endoskeltons by biological organisms. The physical properties and the morphology of the composite material that is formed depends on the mode of crystal-growth, which depends on the diffusion of the constituents (metal cations, their anions, and additives). We chose a model system, strontium carbonate / silica, because the precipitation of SrCO3 and SiO2 is pH dependent. A lower pH accelerates SiO2 formation while it slows down SrCO3 crystallization, and vice versa. Thus, the precipitation of the composite can occur in an alternating fashion, regulating the morphology of the carbonate precipitate. The solution of SrCl2 and water glass is poured into a shallow container and a glass slide is floated on top, eliminating the effects of bulk precipitation and convection. The pH is adjusted to a starting value of 12, and a small amount of dimethyl carbonate is added. This compound slowly hydrolyses and gives off carbon dioxide, the carbonate source for the crystal growth. The crystal morphology is clearly dendritic and shows several distinct periods of growth. First, a few crystals grow from a common seed, and after a while, the blocking of surface sites on the carbonate crystals by water glass, leads to the start of a more needle-like growth with a significant increase of branching density. Finally, after seven days, coral-like structures are formed. [DOI: 10.1380/ejssnt.2017.65]

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